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Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanization Scheme. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanization system.
The name Jyutping (itself the Jyutping romanization of the Chinese name 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms jyut jyu (粵語, meaning "Yue language") and ping jam (拼音 "phonetic alphabet").
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(Note that the "j" used by this romanization system is the "j" used by IPA, which is equivalent to the "y" used by English speakers or most Chinese romanization systems.)
- The finals m and ng can only be used as standalone nasal syllables.
- ^ ^ ^ Referring to the colloquial pronunciation of these words.
There are nine tones in six distinct tone contours in Cantonese. However, as three of the nine are entering tones (入聲), which only appear in syllables ending with p, t, and k, they do not have separate tone numbers in Jyutping (though they do in Yale; these are shown in parentheses in table below).
|Tone name||Yīn Píng |
|Yīn Shàng |
|Yīn Qù |
|Yáng Píng |
|Yáng Shàng |
|Yáng Qù |
|Yīn Rù |
|Zhōng Rù |
|Yáng Rù |
|Tone Number||1||2||3||4||5||6||1 (7)||3 (8)||6 (9)|
|Tone name in English||high level or high falling||mid rising||mid level||low falling||low rising||low level||entering high level||entering mid level||entering low level|
|Contour||55 / 53||35||33||22 / 21||13||22||5||3||2|
Comparison with Yale Romanization
Jyutping and the Yale romanization system of Cantonese represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in:
- The initials: b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw, w.
- The vowel: aa (except when using alone), a, e, i, o, u,yu.
- The nasal consonant: m, ng.
- The coda: i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k.
But they have difference with the following exceptions:
- The vowels eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping, while the eu represents both vowels in Yale.
- The initial j represents /j/ in Jyutping while y is used instead in Yale.
- The initial z represents /ts/ in Jyutping while j is used instead in Yale.
- The initial c represents /tsʰ/ in Jyutping while ch is used instead in Yale.
- In Jyutping, if no consonant precedes the vowel yu, then the initial j is appended before the vowel. In Yale, the corresponding initial y is never appended before yu under any circumstances.
- Jyutping defines three finals not in Yale: eu /ɛːu/, em /ɛːm/, and ep /ɛːp/. These three finals are used in colloquial Cantonese words, such as deu6 (掉), lem2 (舐), and gep6 (夾).
- To represent tones, only tone numbers are used in Jyutping while Yale originally uses tone marks together with the letter h (though tone numbers can be used in Yale as well).
Comparison with Standard Cantonese Pinyin
Jyutping and the Standard Cantonese Pinyin represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in:
- The initials: b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw, j, w.
- The vowel: aa, a, e, i, o, u.
- The nasal consonant: m, ng.
- The coda: i (except of being the coda /y/ in Jyutping), u, m, n, ng, p, t, k.
But they have some differences:
- The vowels oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ in Standard Cantonese Pinyin while the eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ respectively in Jyutping.
- The vowel y represent /y/ in Standard Cantonese Pinyin while both yu (use in nucleus) and i (use in coda) is used in Jyutping.
- The initial dz represents /ts/ in Standard Cantonese Pinyin while z is used instead in Jyutping.
- The initial ts represents /tsʰ/ in Standard Cantonese Pinyin while c is used instead in Jyutping.
- To represent tone, numbers 1 to 9 are usually used in Standard Cantonese Pinyin (as in Yale), though substituting 1, 3, and 6 for 7, 8, and 9 is acceptable. However, only numbers 1 to 6 are used in Jyutping.
|廣州話||广州话||gwong2 zau1 waa2|
Pronunciation in an old Chinese poem:
|春曉 孟浩然||Ceon1 Hiu2 Maang6 Hou6jin4|
|春眠不覺曉，||Ceon1 min4 bat1 gok3 hiu2,|
|處處聞啼鳥。||cyu3 cyu3 man4 tai4 niu5.|
|夜來風雨聲，||Je6 loi4 fung1 jyu5 sing1,|
|花落知多少？||faa1 lok6 zi1 do1 siu2?|
Jyutping input method
The Jyutping method allows a user to input Chinese characters by entering the jyutping of a Chinese character (with or without tone, depending on the system) and then presenting the user with a list of possible characters with that pronunciation.