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Universitato de Vesperto

ĉe Lulu-insulo sur Fraser-rivero. Esperanto ekde 1887.


M17 Reserved Morphemes
Kastelo Verda
vesperto

Reserved root morphemes for future use

purruy
tutjurr
lunjkirn
nurlmung
njak
yirlpirt
winwing
nanwim
yurlinj
turnrtilj
raknganj
rtarr
rlinjulj
tanatj
rrawak
luljtjul
piljpuk
kirlmaw
lurnpiy
yaptil
rnaturl
mayart
nguw
kukngulj
njirn
tjarnkatj
njinjmip
njitj
makap
rluntulj
tjan
ngunjkup
kiturr
rrirr
tjanjpuy
wungunj
maray
rrungkay
ljirirt
panmar
yarlmurr
ngarnmun
yirlrtinj
liray
yuljman
turitj
ljuljpat
marnatj
nuljpirt
rrunirn
tjuyirl
rlarral
larnmirl
rnurlul
tjarring
kilj
yipap
rnungang
njatjmar
wirlatj
rartiw
warr
niljkuk
ninip
lan
luwirt
mikut
tjilj
matap
runjtjat
puwuw
rlurlrtir
rnanjtjut
yinkunj
rrunjarl
nulanj
minjtjum
pitj
lurlpinj
rintin
mul
nirnkay
rtinjkir
rtayak
luljpul
ralpil
ninjpurl
yiw
rlitjmilj
rlanj
ljirturn
tjirrak
ruwarn
yutirt
luljkal
ljirnrtuw
yirluy
rum
larnap
yirlrtirr
rtatjming
muljpam
purlminj
ljirip
narlkurt
ninjuw
kungurn
watjparl
wingurn
matung
rtangparn
rtiljul
langpul
wangar
kuturl
warlkinj
ruyart
rtiljap
ljirnul
tjakam
ljalpam
ljatan
njurrarn
wakuk
tjirnmutj
wirlir
ljurt
laninj
njiy
rlalj
rtitjmap
ngupup
wiwutj
luljtjap
rtupatj
rrurl
pilik
wungkan
ljay
yiljking
tjang
tanmir
luriw
ngiljkalj
rriljan
kiljmung
rlaljang
kurnrtak
ninjuy
ljarnpitj
njunak
kiy
nirat
piljtjurl
yipak
niljat
rrayurr
tutjparr
tjirnarl
mirlay
yarnim
yirlmip
tjurn
limutj
rtirralj
war
matjmang
rnal
kuljkang
ngatjal
purrurn
pal
tjilpat
rnir
pim
rraptuk
rranar
ljarlir
yarnpalj
njur
ngulpun
turl
witjung
rnirlpang
ljulmang
yuk
njampam
larr
puljkur
panj
kaljpurt
rlulat
punjunj
nalj
njaljiy
ljanj
rakngiy
rtirlmatj
rrulmaw
rung
tirt
numir
pin
yiljtjit
kitjpuy
pirlrtan
rnirn
nanj
rawarl
turlrtat
nurnmirn
minar
pilpar
tjilkung
paljpiw
wiyil
yurnkip
rtingam
ngung
pulj
mapatj
talim
kitjpar
taltutj
pirnurn
namay
punjmup
nunj
turir
mirnuk
ngirl
rrarnrtak
rtamurn
rrangkurt
rinkut
kirlanj
rlum
kinjpir
rturnpim
nup
laljkip
punjtjulj
wat
kukngap
rnitiw
njarpun
tunjkiy
ljar
ngimun
minjpik
tjurlrtut
rurnuy
tirlpinj
lalun
ngunjtjay
ngartuk
rlurtik
miljkaw
kurrutj
njinwaw
malmaw
kunjmak
ljirnkim
turlir
pupip
mutjpulj
rrunjurt
rtitup
pir
rrarnan
rnurirl
rumpurr
kirlung
ljatjmim
ngakam
yalj
rlirt
lirrang
kurlim
lul
njukngap
ngulmirt
rtunjal
lut
miljtjir
ritjmin
nitjurn
yarnmaw
rnunirl
tjakngit
rrurnin
yarnarn
rninjkirt
rlilurt
tiljip
nurlur
yirnalj
nginj
kutjmarn
wanj
tjarnurl
rningkalj
nirnang
kun
tjiltunj
rrinjtjup
yalin
larlmart
rtiwiy
pawirl
parnurn
ljanjtjunj
mulj
rnuljpur
nakirl
pangut
lunjirr
ljaminj
tjuljat
njirt
njimpitj
mirrang
rlunkik
ljingking
tjuwiw
ljurap
tuwarl
lurnpilj
tjungping
ljuntarl
nurlinj
tirritj
yurnparl
ngurn
wutjpur
njilpir
rrawinj
muyang
punjanj
niljkilj
linwurl
rtitjutj
rnunkup
kiyart
rrurritj
njakatj
ljutjart
rnangpurr
ljungart
njurruk
kitjap
tarilj
lurnat
ljurlil
rturl
rlirlrtirr
pupir
nurling
tjiljmarr
tjip
tatik
rnitjim
punarn
panminj
pamur
njanjmuw
yamuk
rtutjunj
wurtut
kanjkung
tjing
njutjpirr
larlap
ngupiy
rtunj
kurlpuk
ralj
rrirrurt
tjinirr
rlan
kuwun
nartun
rrirn
kirral
nirnkutj
tultarl
tungkun
miy
ngalj
ruljmung
rlinmim
watjing
njilmir
lirtim
larray
winjkal
larnrturl
lingir
ljuting
murnit
kukal
tarl
wuking
tiwitj
njalmiy
tjarap
rrulkap
nulkung
ngunjatj
rnum
ngunarr
parnmarl
ljarlmuk
ngatjpilj
ljip
rrurlun
ljanin
katuw
pumit
miptil
yurn
tintulj
rlarlpanj
ngayak
njurtum
laluw
ngatjulj
rnilj
tjingirn
nitjmirn
rtakirr
tjanmur
mikur
rrunjmuy
yulmutj
kuy
yurlmuy
lik
wumpal
purnmuw
narlkanj
malil
milunj
rlurlmurn
mapuw
tur
mutjmut
rtanuy
ljirram
kul
nuning
wim
kayurt
lirnkam
lirrung
njirnulj
mam
ngartan
ngirnmun
rrarlap
rnil
mungkang
rnarlkarr
tjarutj
kim
rlunjkaw
lutjak
manmat
warpal
rnanjuk
tjunirt
lukiy
ljinwar
nipirt
pangul
ngirt
layung
nulun
yum
ngarturl
rnalkutj
waljkuk
ngipat
yitjparr
mung
ray
wurnmam
tunj
rnuljkir
ljilj
rutjalj
muljaw
mun
rriyurn
rtingkut
ngurtip
kin
rturritj
pirtap
nal
niy
rlinarl
kilul
kiling
litjirl
ljanjmak
mintik
tuljarn
tingung
rutjparn
rrintir
rlurnmuw
ljiyur
kum
kanj
nirlpim
rlarnilj
rlanjutj
rturul
rtakirn
warlkut
rrurrap
walulj
lirurt
wunjirn
yapurl
rlurrim
rnat
rlayirr
nurr
wumpum
niralj
tirtut
rtutjarl
larnkul
kirr
nirlkuw
rruranj
man
tutjpuk
rtakart
ljurnmip
wuwung
rrirtuk
winjpur
tjarnpay
ljuw
kunmur
rrulmin
ljamang
talman
runwup
tay
tuyilj
rrulj
tjirrulj
rtimang
tjiljit
winkuw
ratik
par
rirlmal
wuntalj
put
rlurrik
rturlrting
tjalj
ralpiw
rlarnpip
kitj
rnarritj
rningirr
rnilkan
parn
ngirn
wurl
rtanul
rrunuy
yutjmirr
rurarn
tirruy
ratjmut
nilkang
tukirr
rulmarn
wupum
marnrtay
panul
kaltalj
ljirurr
rlurlang
ralirn
rnirnmat
ljuran
manwulj
ngaljminj
nurlirr
tjurtatj
talpurn
rik
winjkir
mutjung
rtartum
nit
tjamarr
paljtjirt
tanjpiw
nulpurl
njurl
ljiljtjay
nawitj
yirl
rnupirt
rrirtay
rrurnurt
yar
miljmurl
nir
rritjpurl
yangar
minjping
rutjiy
rtumpurl
nuyin
tjulj
ljatim
rnakurn
kulun
kirnkul
rartunj
nuptiw
wikit
tjalkil
nunjap
nurtit
ljatjmulj
tjamirr
tiljin
ljanjaw
rnuwik
rluljitj
yatung
rnuy
witilj
yuwil
murlalj
narnmuy
ljirung
nanjpik
rrinjmirt
njuyap
kaw
pinjmart
marnkan
ljaptuw
njanir
rringiw
kalmurr
yurril
lirnatj
rlirniw
wulkart
tjarnrtan
tjarulj
rninmalj
rnim
rlinjkul
nguk
ngurnmunj
rirnul
nulunj
rrung
rtang
rrunjip
yirn
putan
way
yamuw
nikul
ngurin
njarr
rnuljarl
rtutjiy
rtanjpap
ljarnkurr
rtarnap
warnuw
rlumirl
rnarnpurt
naljkart
rnirrap
rrangan
tjirlrtulj
kanmart
rlukngunj
taljmanj
wirt
rlunjtjul
nirnrtalj
rlunurl
ljiliy
rran
rnuljtjarl
ningpuy
rrutj
nungpar
nanart
rtar
rirput
riljman
rnulpurr
luw
tikirn
mayup
tjiy
taltal
tjulmir
ruptitj
yutjuy
rtingil
ngimul
rtup
mitun
tjakip
tinjmuw
tjul
tirnkalj
njuljtjitj
nanjmit
nurnpal
kanjtjirr
raw
run
nakan
ngurl
yaljik
ljakur
nilkirn
marnrtir
rnarl
tjurt
kuptum
karuk
rlaw
wunjmaw
tjinjmak
njarnpiw
lil
ljingpum
rrurnrtulj
ngawirn
pamun
rnalarn
tjiwaw
ljunj
lirnung
ngumutj
njuljip
yarnrtun
lukul
tuljik
purlkir
ngik
njurut
rirr
rnarlrtinj
rtalarn
rinjman
tjangkiy
tarlunj
rtinmin
njuyit
rlukim
ljapuk
tjuljan
niptak
njurr
likngin
runjkart
yarl
ljutunj
lutulj
tuljitj
lunjpik
rutatj
mamak
rrirtap
ljurtalj
kanurl
njanirr
rnultir
ljunwil
larpilj
yinwirn
rurtum
karnam
lirlkay
njunjkul
rlitung
rrirl
rririlj
tinjmart
rlampurr
rlarrurr
njarlmiw
marrun
rtingik
rtarl
rlirnkirr
nurlmurn
njalitj
rtuptarn
mulpit
rlinkaw
ninj
ngat
niriw
tjatjmirt
rtiyin
murart
yarnrturn
rririm
njungan
parlilj
njirlalj
naljin
wunart
wampanj
ngunjkay
rtirnpip
nangurr
ljanmung
ngipik
ljarlpart
rriljpin
tjurlarn
rnayirl
nitjurt
nitj
ljinjuk
nanguw
yalkanj
malpir
rtutit
nirlkan
rlunmarl
tirtir
karn
rniljiy
rrunjpung
njanjmuy
kaljmip
tjirurl
naning
riw
njaniw
kuway
naljpal
ljuptur
nuy
lurlkaw
rinjkung
ngilj
milarl
rululj
turtilj
rtatj
njarilj
kamik
rruptirt
nginmar
rlaljam
katjmik
tjungaw
payar
niljuw
njurnkirt
ljarnkuy
wurt
laram
witjpap
rraljmatj
rnutjpurt
rrunun
ngurnrtar
rtirt
njapirl
rirlpam
pilmunj
luljtjik
tjukurt
rtiljam
putang
njarrut
ngun
kumpatj
rningirl
yirnkar
njuptart
witjart
yanjatj
tiljang
wurr
yungpang
nirturr
rrutjmum
rul
natjarn
nilkutj
wungkir
yirrarl
talkang
rtirur
nganiy
yuljung
rnang
rlapirt
rtaljtjat
tjuting
rlilin
runirn
talitj
nirlrtang
tjum
rtunkat
nurlkinj
larlur
langarr
rlunjkulj
laral
parlkim
rnirralj
tirnkap
putj
kungkiy
ranmut
tjalkun
rnuk
munj
rraljirr
rnarnrtirl
laljkat
purnpim
ngilmun
ljiluk
nanjmim
rtiljtjuy
pinur
kulkarn
pay
rtunkurl
rrinun
ljanman
kuljar
rtayut
tukurt
ngim
putuk
njinjpirr
rulpil
panwam
tulirt
tip
kilil
pirlal
ljutjpak
rnutjpit
rirlpir
njawanj
kaljam
kirranj
wiy
njurlpum
njupatj
njinjpinj
yumpip
rriw
ngirrak
tjunj
ljuljtjur
njir
ngirtir
lurlitj
tjantiy
rtirlkun
rlirpay
ljat
rrurnmik
kuminj
njatjmun
rniljkatj
malat
rtinjtjung
rutjaw
kirnit
njupung
rtinmit
piyinj
rnunjang
taw
pinalj
tunkanj
tjukur
ngiljtjurl
yimutj
tunjtjar
kunj
rnup
rtakinj
rirlkam
rlirlmut
wurnpup
rutul
waparl
turnir
katjparr
lakngarn
milkap
tirn
tjuruy
njarnking
nitjmirt
paritj
yinurt
niyim
ljulmak
tjalputj
putik
rtatjal
milpurn
ljiturn
rturturn
layun
yinjul
wunjpiw
tjaljkat
pit
ngimirr
nukngul
marnkit
njurlmul
tjurrart
njaput
njurrulj
pilj
rinjtjuk
nilmirn
rnurlput
rtat
tungirt
rirrirn
tjuljmik
wulkit
yatjut
yartur
tanmil
kitjmit
ljipturr
warlmak
tjirnaw
wultay
rrimpirr
tjurlpurn
kirt
yik
rnur
rrirnkun
rluljam
rtaltit
rliw
riwanj
nirr
njiritj
rakatj
lirlmirr
rnirnarl
ngirlpam
nirrart
likang
yarlparn
tirnilj
murranj
mirt
miljpalj
tjikam
tjakun
yultip
ranjpurr
nirl
wintulj
rtaljtjurn
nunkam
nukum
tin
rtarlpanj
numurn
rlanjart
tjanum
makirr
nginmal
naljtjutj
ngayil
rnarrurt
kalkinj
rramul
rliyiy
tiyay
kamut
lutjuw
njurit
njip
ljirlmur
njirlkunj
nganjiy
tulin
rluljuk
wilj
tjangalj
naljmaw
tjaltalj
winjtjing
njurlilj
rnurnutj
minj
tunmurr
puman
ljalkarn
rlarnrturt
tuljpurn
mitjurt
rtap
marlrturl
rrurlmat
kangir
tjupiy
rlunjmalj
ranwun
rtuljiy
rinjmut
rukngurt
puljarl
tjinjmur
njiring
waljmim
ljarap
tjiljkurt
tjirnpurr
tjiljtjir
rtaljin
ngutjming
rtuk
nutjirt
wuwam
ratjpinj
njatjarr
rrungin
kutjum
njurnpit
lilik
ringkurr
lam
rtanjkir
rtartarl
runjurl
ngikurr
piltatj
riljiw
turlkutj
yangun
rtutjik
piwurn
runjpur
rlil
rtil
rantinj
yirlrting
ngitjin
tjimal
tjarn
rtimurn
ringpiy
warriy
pulpil
ninjkurl
rturpurn
rtarrirt
pitik
rtaljiy
rniljmalj
yiyay
rarnkulj
lalputj
rnanjkal
rnayuy
nalmar
yunkam
nungay
lulmaw
kal
tulmal
yunwilj
tjiljkim
yurat
rninjur
kingkam
nutunj
ngarnkuw
muyiw
tutjpik
winj
kiljtjalj
rnurrut
ngitj
pul
rrin
rurling
nirnat
tiltaw
tupilj
tartur
njulay
ninmirn
yalarr
rangart
tiljtjat
patan
larput
rninjkarr
rturt
rtatjmirl
tjirlkaw
ljurlrtuw
tirriw
wirr
rlingkung
rarnutj
rrurnpum
rlanjuy
miniy
kuyur
rirlkilj
rnatjitj
rruyam
wawurl
njikuw
ngaljmanj
rinin
rnurturn
kipum
rritjarl
rtirnrtulj
njukut
ninwit
kanjarn
taptuy
rutjmurt
rrarl
rranjkal
wirlum
liljkulj
ngarnmurr
rlurlkirl
rluk
lin
runjtjaw
ngilup
lurnpirr
mulay
minmur
yampun
tjurnart
njulturr
piltut
yaljtjutj
lanjkirn
runjip
muwup
rnanup
runkap
rtalpirl
nunurt
rnuyuy
wuljtjat
wirlmitj
rninguw
nan
rtuwung
linjil
ngirlip
rturirn
lilan
lingik
piptiw
marnurr
njanjkal
yipum
tjuljulj
punj
rrangpuy
murnut
rrulpatj
mutjpal
kurlurn
kukngaw
ngunurt
yiwur
rrirlmut
ljumpaw
rrutjpal
rlurnitj
makilj
tjurrung
num
lukngang
ljamal
rakngatj
rtultal
ngurlmanj
yutjalj
ngaljuw
kalmarl
tjiljak
kurnmir
nipaw
winmuw
ngirnrtirt
njart
rlarnpulj
lalil
pirrang
rnap
tik
nukarr
ljiwinj
rnutjmirn
rnanjkil
njirut
yiljmak
tintart
njalpik
raltay
njanarl
manjpik
munming
lipam
nunjun
lamut
raltim
murlung
nangart
njinjut
rlurrurl
tjatjpun
mitjpiy
narung
njalparn
maljkurl
ljutanj
waniy
rnirlmirr
kirnpun
ljiluy
rlut
rtaljmutj
tjalkirl
punjtjarr
munjmat
purpulj
mipay
njantit
rramup
pirnmurr
rralmim
tiyurl
rlirnat
rtatjmurn
rnuptulj
rtinjkulj
rninjirt
Tags: ,

M17 Lexicon 3
Kastelo Verda
vesperto
v absorb pukngurr
v adhere (hold tightly to / stick to something) ljanirn
v beat (repeatedly hit), batter mirr
v blow (move/cause to move as a current of gas) rurirt
v boil yirlurt
v bounce, rebound murran
v break (into pieces) rnikin
v build (join materials to create), construct kak
v burn runtal
v burst yurnmatj
v consume, deplete, expend, exhaust, use up rlalmutj
v contain tirnrtun
v crush (press on so as to break or re-shape) njalpang
v cut rrurlmarl
v dig ljutjpulj
v dissolve njapturt
v evaporate nuljmalj
v explode nginjtjatj
v float nguljmurt
v flow (travel in a current) natjurn
v fold tjarting
v freeze lungar
v grind ngutjurt
v hang, suspend, dangle lumpin
v hit, strike rlinting
v melt njintak
v mix, blend rat
v pollute, contaminate njumam
v pour (cause to flow) wurnkulj
v preserve, maintain (keep X in good condition) tuputj
v press (do pressure to; push upon with weight or force) rilj
v pry {British: prize} (raise/open/move with a lever) punwaw
v pull (draw something toward oneself) tjukarl
v push (press on something in order to move it) wulum
v rot, decay rtiljtjaw
v rub, abrade nguwur
v sew kirl
v shake nik
v shoot (cause to rapidly go forth) yuwurr
v sink yarn
v spill (accidentally emit liquid) wanat
v spread (begin to cover or cause X to cover more area) talpay
v stab, jab njingkilj
v stir, agitate njitjmul
v suck mangkum
v sweep tiniy
v tear, rip kaljurt
v tie, bind wangpur
v trim, prune (cut off ragged edges) tinjmiw
v wash mirn
v weave rlurlkal
v wrap lilap
aj acid(ic) yur
aj alkaline rnaljtjiy
n atom linwurr
n balance, equilibrium rtaniw
n basis, foundation (part which supports the rest) yatut
n electricity tjatanj
n energy rutur
n fire ringun
n force tinj
n gravity minjup
n magnet ngarnup
n molecule waltanj
n power rlulpal
n smell, odor, aroma yiy
n strength (ability to exert physical power) rringpum
n stroke, jolt, blow of force rtarnirt
n vacuum yatiy
n vapor, mist tjaw
n polarity (electric, magnetic, etc.) rrungak
aj positive wan
aj negative nituy
aj gentle, mild njirlak
aj violent, harsh warnalj
v see mup
n light (visible electro-magnetic radiation) rramiy
n color ngiljkur
n shadow, shade lirpiy
v shine (radiate light) mumum
n picture, image rtik
aj bright (with much light present) nirtik
aj dark, dim (with little light present) rtun
aj black rlunjmip
aj gray {British: grey} waltang
aj white rnurt
aj red natj
aj orange (having a hue between red and yellow) ngawirt
aj yellow ngulang
aj green tjatj
aj blue tjirt
aj purple lurnmip
aj brown kayarn
aj beautiful titatj
aj ugly lilmil
n ornament, decoration putjutj
n blemish, blot tim
v hide, conceal kinturr
v reveal, disclose rlung
v examine, inspect rtartiy
v show, exhibit, display rralul
n sound (audible waves in the air) wunum
aj silent yurtirr
aj quiet, soft, faint (of little sonic intensity) rrirran
aj loud (of much sonic intensity) tinjtjilj
v hear wurlirl
n music marpulj
n tone, pitch (frequency of sound waves) pirirl
v whistle nayur
n temperature (relative amount of heat present) tjipurr
n heat, warmth ringpal
aj cold, chilly, frigid ljupin
aj cool rlungpatj
aj warm njirpak
aj hot kungkik
v bake (cook or harden by means of dry heat) nikngut
v cook (prepare by applying heat) njartay
v happen, occur kiljuy
n accident (unintentional and unexpected event) rrirart
n miracle rnilpurr
n disaster, catastrophe ljukirl
n act, deed tangpung
n activity, bustle, ado rlatik
n result, consequence luwil
v agree rtaralj
v fight, combat mingpan
v protect, defend ngaljkitj
v attack ngurnung
aj good ngirnur
aj bad waljkung
n category, classification tunwut
n kind, sort, type, variety (of...) warnping
aj certain, sure ljanjpanj
aj probable (likely to happen/be) litiw
v cooperate, collaborate nganjtjang
v compete, strive, vie ngiw
v help, assist, aid warlutj
v interfere, hinder ljarr
v succeed ngarlrtam
v fail rrungit
aj simple ngampurn
aj complex manjkang
n condition, state, status pirlmurl
v create, make (bring into existence) nawak
v destroy (contra-create; cause to cease existing) tuljpak
n safety, security nurlrtung
n danger (situation in which harm is probable) rrinwitj
aj easy kuk
aj difficult, hard kirtarl
aj true ngum
aj false, untrue ljungkirr
aj famous kurpip
aj obscure, unheard of muptak
v injure, damage, harm rlitjarl
v repair, fix rtitutj
n flaw, defect, imperfection ngatj
aj native (naturally belonging to a given realm) nalurn
aj chief, main, primary, principal nutjmum
aj auxiliary nurl
aj normal, ordinary, usual ljiyak
aj strange, weird, unusual, peculiar rrur
n trouble, difficulty njuy
aj real, actual wuyup
n trick, chicanery mum
aj right, correct tjukngiw
aj wrong, incorrect nangpiy
v reside, dwell, live yurnart
n camp, bivouac, temporary shelter yilkiw
n nest, den, lair (an animal's self-made house) rtinjim
v represent (act as a substitute for) rrinup
n substitute, surrogate (temporary replacement) rnanjung
n replacement (permanent substitute/substitution) ngirlarl
aj common, general (shared by all members of a group) kurr
aj specific, special, particular rlulal
n ability, capacity (to do something) luljil
aj artificial (deliberately made by humans) rlilutj
aj automatic rnatjurr
n chance, randomicity, luck langil
n civilization rlipirn
aj clear, plain (easy to see/understand) rnanginj
n compromise njunjarl
v consist of, be composed of nantang
v depend on, rely on mit
v deserve, merit, be worthy of rlurnmunj
n detail mar
aj equal yitulj
aj evil lilj
aj exact, precise mituw
n example, sample njartir
n exercise, practice (effort made to improve skills/health) munjpup
n experiment ljirn
aj fertile rlaljtjak
n harmony (pleasing combination of stimuli) linunj
aj just, fair, equitable rtirtilj
n match (a thing suitably associated with another) rtanjmut
n method, manner, way (of doing), technique lirtiw
aj mutual, reciprocal njirratj
aj naked, nude, exposed (without the usual cover) wiljpurl
aj necessary, needed, required minjtjurl
v need, require linjirr
aj possible (able to happen or be done) rlanuy
v prevent (keep from happening) rlang
n process, procedure ljiwurn
n program lipar
n progress, advancement rlay
n project, undertaking, venture rlingur
n proof, evidence ngiptik
n quality, trait, attribute, characteristic ralir
aj ready, prepared for a task / event rraljmik
n relationship, association rinmurl
n right (a right to do/be ...) mutj
n role (an individual's function) narnrtiy
v save, rescue njilturn
n species katjmutj
aj suitable, proper, fit(ting), appropriate rtirnkilj
n system njinj
n task, chore, job, assignment pan
n technology rrukun
n tendency, propensity, inclination wup
v try, attempt, endeavor marnul
v use, utilize runjpar
n vogue, trend, fad, fashion nulkiw
v waste, misuse murir
aj wild, feral, untamed rurt
n work, effort, labor, toil ngap
n riot rtirturn
n science tjurlpirn
v serve (provide service to) lungarl
n set (complete group of similar items) ngirnkurn
n strike (work stoppage as protest) tukngut
v support rrart
v test, check njunjkart
v torture, torment rluming
Tags: ,

M17 Lexicon 2
Kastelo Verda
vesperto
n address (postal co-ordinates) rratj
v admit, confess njilkak
n advertisement ngitjir
n advice pup
n alphabet nuwatj
v announce, proclaim tuljir
n answer, reply to a question or argument martar
n article, essay (piece of text about one topic) ljurnam
v ask, inquire may
n book rtinjmang
v call, summon piyat
n chapter (main division of book) rrirtam
n chart, diagram ngirut
n claim, assertion (statement of unknown accuracy) wulj
n code (cryptographic system) ljangum
n command, order, directive yaljpar
n communication (exchange of information) njirl
n consonant (non-vowel) njitak
v criticize tjimiy
v deny (say that X is not true) rrurpiw
v describe tjurlpik
n dictionary maw
v discuss, talk about ljitjak
n document winjmulj
v emphasize, accentuate, stress tir
n fact (undisputed datum) nurtam
n fiction nganwanj
n file (dossier; loose bundle of data) warn
n grammar (rules and structure of a language) tar
n history (organized account of past events), chronicle rnunjiw
v indicate ljunwak
n information ljarrin
n insult ljinj
v invite yanwatj
n issue, edition (of periodical etc.) rtantar
n label rukam
n language (the verbal communication technique of a people) rninwal
n letter (a message written and mailed) njangpinj
v lie (utter a known falsehood) ngulj
n list ljurrunj
n magazine (periodical publication) pungarr
v mail (transmit postally) rnurr
n map (drawing of planet's surface) ljiral
n meaning (semantic content of a word) njukngarr
n message (batch of transmitted information) ljapik
n movie, motion picture yunmik
n name rratjap
n news, tidings ngarrulj
n newspaper kiljtjul
n noise (confused/randomized sound/stimuli) njirlam
n note, annotation rlungarn
n page (one side of a sheet of paper in a book) rniljkar
n photograph rliptur
n poem njultart
v praise, compliment, laud namar
v print (to copy marks by pressing inked objects on paper) riljpurn
n promise (a claim about one's future actions), pledge kinjmar
n protest, objection tjaknguy
n question, query tun
v quote, cite mikuy
v read yirnkanj
n record (a cache of information) rraljaw
v request, ask for nurlrturr
v say, tell, express in words palpun
aj secret nankit
n sentence (of words) lutart
v sing njurnkul
v speak, talk rrunwanj
n story, report pulkirn
v suggest, propose (offer an idea) ljiljkat
n syllable ngit
n symbol, sign, token murtirr
v thank (express gratitude toward) ngunjpat
n vocabulary (sum of words available to a person/people) katit
n voice rrup
n vowel taljmarl
v warn lumarr
n word kinjim
v write wirlarr
n game (a rule-governed system of competitive amusement) tjitjput
n game, match (one particular encounter between competitors) murl
n athletics (games involving physical skill), sports tjumurl
n score (the tally of points in a competition) yulj
n umpire, referee, official nak
n ball (spheroidal plaything) tjuy
n bat, stick, racket/racquet (any ball-hitting tool) rruyilj
n ski ngitjurr
n baseball rip
n basketball rututj
n football (association f~), soccer tunjpuk
n football (American/tackle f~) katjut
n gymnastics rtuwiy
n hockey rrurlurr
n pool, billiards wur
n tennis rtitil
n chess tjawul
v play, recreate, frolic rnutjulj
aj same, identical ljarlpin
aj similar rningarr
aj different wurlrturl
aj/pn other, another tjurlpang
v change (become/make different), vary mal
v imitate, mimic lurpim
aj original, non-imitative ngul
n prototype, exemplar, archetype, model (for all Xs) murlrturn
n copy (a duplicate) lulj
num zero tilam
num one njunjirn
num two pukurr
num three nutirl
num four yirling
num five yanjtjarr
num six lart
num seven kuraw
num eight yurlrtun
num nine niwarr
num ten rnanatj
num hundred njarrurl
num thousand rlirpam
num million ljim
num half (1/2) purnrturr
n quantity (amount / number / magnitude) ngilur
n number, numeral (a word or symbol indicating quantity) rtirlmul
v count, enumerate rir
v measure rrurrar
n ratio, rate, proportion nurt
v add, append, join so as to cause an increase ljum
v remove, subtract, take away, delete rtitjmur
v increase (become or make greater in quantity) tjuljit
v decrease (become or make lesser in quantity) ngingar
v multiply wiw
v divide ljurlrtul
n total, sum, aggregate partar
n rest (of ...), remainder, leftovers, remnant talj
aj whole, entire, complete ljirling
aj all (the whole number or entire sum of) rimilj
aj many (a large number of) nunjil
aj few (a small number of) njangpap
aj much (a large quantity of) tjunjmul
aj more (a larger quantity of) yurlpirt
aj most (the largest quantity of) njalj
aj little (a small quantity of) warnart
aj less (a smaller quantity of) rtuy
aj least (the smallest quantity of) ljurr
n part rruturl
n piece (a part broken/cut/separated from something larger) manmik
n section, segment (a part somehow different/separated from others) punjtjirr
n allocation, allotment, portion (someone's share of X) nat
n group making
n batch (quantity of things done/produced at one time) tjilkap
n bundle, bunch (group of things tied or grouped together) taljpirt
n majority rtan
n minority rnimat
n density rtalpit
aj dense (of much density), concentrated, thick, intense rnitj
aj rarefied, tenuous, diffuse, dilute, sparse, wispy munjtjit
aj full, filled rniw
aj empty rrilj
n degree (the extent/intensity/scope of an action/condition/relation) rlumpirn
av at least, not less than (>=) ngurlmutj
av at most, only, just, merely, not more than (<=) njinjutj
av much, very (to a large degree; with great intensity) tjurlkur
av more (to a larger degree) rtut
av most (to the largest degree) tal
av little (to a small degree; with almost no intensity) turaw
av less (to a smaller degree) njukak
av least (to the smallest degree) rlurn
av enough, sufficiently yikuk
av almost, nearly minjal
av too much, excessively njutirr
av too little, insufficiently lunung
n size (degree of largeness or smallness) kitun
aj huge, enormous, gigantic wurpurn
aj big, large (of much size) rruljmit
aj small (of little size) kup
aj tiny, minuscule tilurr
v expand, grow paljtjay
v shrink, contract lirnarr
n distance (amount of space from X to Y) ngutj
aj/av far (at / to a great distance) ljurn
aj/av near (at / to a little distance) tjunking
aj present (existing in the indicated place; contra-absent) rnarr
aj absent tjunanj
n place, location rlam
n length (distance from one end to the other) rrimatj
aj long (of much length) rritj
aj short (of little length) rnirt
n width (degree of wideness or narrowness) yaltin
aj wide, broad (of space between objects) manwutj
aj narrow, of little width (of space between objects) kuljmuk
n thickness (of a solid object, etc.) niljtjat
aj thick, fat (large from one surface to the opposite surface) maljtjulj
aj thin, slender (small from one surface to the opposite surface) rirn
n height (distance from ground / baseline to top) rnirnpam
aj high, tall (of much height) ngurput
aj low, short (not tall; of little height) niljurt
n depth (distance from ground / baseline down to bottom) lay
aj deep, profound (of much depth) rrirlrtutj
aj shallow (of little depth) liring
aj horizontal ljurnuk
aj vertical njurnang
aj diagonal, slanted tjukiy
aj sloped, inclined/declined (not horizontal) ngarnrtim
n angle (the relation of two lines radiating from a point) rtarrulj
n position (location relative to others) murnat
n region, area (a quantity of space within boundaries) ramay
n space, room, void nanjar
n connection, joint, junction kirnrtutj
n environment, surroundings, context ral
n front rtak
n rear, back part of nguljparr
n side, flank, lateral area ljimpatj
n middle, center ljitj
n top, peak, summit ljurnmang
n bottom yung
n edge tatj
aj inner, internal, interior ljirr
aj outer, exterior, external ngurnkip
n limit, boundary njikut
v find (discover the location of) ljatjmin
v misplace (lose; become unable to find) tjurl
n direction (orientation of motion) rrularr
av up parluw
av down rarlam
n north ljangkat
n south wilmanj
n east nunuw
n west nirt
aj right(-hand) puwun
aj left(-hand) tjirrim
av away (from this or that place) rutj
av back (to previous place / condition) warnpitj
aj inverted, upside-down njungpim
av backward (in reverse order) njuljmarn
aj direct, immediate (with no intermediaries or obstacles) ljalak
aj serpentine, meandering, convoluted rilanj
n city rluljmut
n village punwirl
n rural area, countryside njutjim
n source, origin rnakirr
n route, path, course ngirlrtip
n destination ljungkuk
v aim (to point/direct X toward Y) kurnmuw
v attract tawiw
v avoid, evade, keep away from tjinjtjurl
n barrier, obstacle rrulmam
n base, node, station (point from which things go or are done) rliming
v bring (cause something to come along with one toward a place) watjmik
v capture, seize purr
v carry (move while supporting) ngunjtjiy
v come, arrive (at indicated place) liptirn
v drift, wander tantang
v drive, impel, propel tjaltap
v emit (to send out any form of matter/energy in any manner) ljutjinj
v enter, go into ngart
v escape, flee from rnatjing
v fly (move through the air) ngalmiw
av forward, ahead tarnpur
v gather, collect (bring or come together) nulj
v go (move from starting point to elsewhere) rrangiy
n journey, trip, voyage tjanutj
v leave, depart, go away from ngaping
n load, burden lurl
v meet, encounter, come across yaw
v miss, fail to hit/reach/see etc. rularn
v move (engage in motion / cause to engage in motion) rlakiw
v put, place, translocate tjimak
v reach, extend as far as rtaljmilj
v release (quit keeping/restraining) tintung
v remain, stay kurlpurl
v repel njurn
v restrain, inhibit, hold back yalkarl
v retrieve, fetch (go to X and bring it back) part
v return (go or send back to previous place/condition) ramal
v ride (sit/perch in/on a vehicle/horse/etc. and travel) kit
v roll (move like a ball/cylinder by turning over and over) rnut
v send, dispatch, transmit rarlin
v slide, slip, glide rlunjpiy
v stretch, extend yiljpip
v turn, divert (send in a different direction) nganjput
v turn, rotate, revolve yilmung
v visit rirpirr
n airplane, aircraft rrirlmir
n bicycle rtinming
n boat kulpirl
n bus rar
n canal, channel, ditch narlpurl
n car, automobile (wheeled motor vehicle) tjarnrtut
n cart, carriage, wagon (wheeled vehicle; not self-propelled) rtip
n motorcycle rriljkang
n port puptat
n railroad tutj
n road tarpin
n rocket wururt
n ship rrunj
n street rukuw
n train (of railroad) rnirtul
n truck {British: lorry} (motor vehicle for cargo-carrying) ringkart
n vehicle pirrilj
n age (degree of oldness / youngness) karrarr
aj young (of little age; having existed/lived for a brief time) tjung
aj old (of much age; having existed/lived for a long time) liy
aj new, novel, recent (having been known for a brief time) njiw
aj old (of long standing; having been known for a long time) rtarn
aj permanent, perpetual ngar
aj constant, invariant, stable rtuljkarl
aj temporary, transient rliljkuy
n interval (quantity of time between events X and Y) rnarnrtum
aj irregular, sporadic, intermittent rtaw
aj regular, periodic (at uniform intervals) rrarnkiy
n rhythm njikal
n time (e.g. "do it 3 times"), occasion, instance, iteration rlunmak
av again, once more, re- wangam
v alternate, take turns (do X then Y then X then Y) kumay
n cycle (one complete performance of a periodic process) paljtjaw
n frequency (degree of oftenness or seldomness) raljkitj
av frequently, often larnurn
av seldom, rarely rutjam
n duration (amount of time consumed) yalitj
aj long (of much duration) nitjpuw
aj short, brief (of little duration) waw
aj gradual ngirat
aj sudden, abrupt rarl
v begin, commence, start wiljinj
v continue, keep on doing/being lungkurl
v pause, hesitate, suspend action temporarily wuljit
v end, conclude, finish rarlparr
v cease, stop doing, quit njuk
v delay, retard, tarry, postpone rlurnmurn
v rush, hurry, hasten lirl
n period, era, epoch rnuw
n moment, an instant ljarrul
av always (at all times) rtutalj
av ever (at any time) rlilputj
av never njilpatj
n time (the dimension/continuum of past-present-future) ritjpirl
n past (the p~), earlier time rtulj
n present (the present time; the now) tjurnpinj
n future (the f~) lulpip
av already (prior to the time mentioned) pupun
av still, yet (even until the time mentioned) kurl
av yesterday wingurr
av today rtirlin
av tomorrow rturut
av long ago (in the far past) rranjmurl
av recently (in the near past) ljuntal
av now (at this time) tuntul
av soon (in the near future) ngunim
av eventually (in the far future) yipirt
aj/av early, premature rnirran
av/aj timely, prompt, on time yirtuy
aj/av late, tardy palmam
n speed, velocity (degree of fastness or slowness) ngital
av quickly, rapidly, swiftly (with much speed) njirnirt
av slowly (with little speed) pipur
n series (a number of similar things following one another) wutj
n sequence, order (temporal arrangement of events in a series) nang
aj last, final (after all others) nulul
aj prior, preceding, previous, contra-next miljpunj
aj next (coming immediately after; "tomorrow" = the next day) nurpum
n season ngakak
n spring (the season) rlar
n summer tulj
n autumn, fall tum
n winter purn
n century niw
n year ranmirr
n month lurlrtatj
n week rrarn
n day (24-hour period) liwulj
n date (coordinates of a day given in some timekeeping system) rrik
n day (daytime -- as opposed to night), diurnal period wilmaw
n night niyurt
n morning (dawn to noon) nunjuw
n noon winmalj
n afternoon (noon to dusk) kinwalj
n evening (dusk to midnight) nap
n midnight rur
n graveyard shift, middle of the night (midnight to dawn) ljiljak
n hour (60 minutes) ngalmalj
n minute (60 seconds) pik
n second (1/60th of a minute) rlurruy
n holiday rnatiw
n sabbath (day of week with religious significance) yaljam
v wait (for), await rlarnung
n air nantun
n alcohol njunjkun
n ash rrurt
n brass (copper-zinc alloy) witjmup
n carbon rilutj
n chalk ngikam
n chemical (substance made by or used in chemistry) njat
n clay rirnpam
n cloth, fabric (material made of threads) rtinjpin
n coal rrinj
n copper wuljpuw
n dirt, earth (tangible), soil tjalkut
n dust purlmunj
n element (substance of irreducible simplicity) yuy
n fat (oily/greasy material from animal adipose tissue or plant seeds) rnurlurr
n fuel mimir
n glass marn
n gold (the precious metal) kitirr
n ice pirr
n ink lunjkirl
n iron tirlrtilj
n jade (the tough green gemstone) rnuptul
n jewel, gem wanjmuk
n lead (the metal) puran
n leather (prepared hide) tingkuw
n medicine (substance that makes one healthy) kuming
n metal yutj
n mineral, ore tumul
n mud rnar
n neon ljuk
n nitrogen njutj
n oil (a combustible fatty liquid that will not mix with water) pulkur
n oil (crude oil), petroleum rturruy
n oxygen rnanmam
n paint lunjkang
n paper njuturr
n plastic (synthetic/processed moldable material) parriy
n poison, toxin tjakum
n potassium rtikngay
n quartz yatj
n rock, stone rlalkirt
n rubber rirluw
n salt tit
n sand nurtum
n silk ljiljparl
n silver (the metal) numpart
n soap yut
n sodium rap
n steam yurtalj
n steel pulkuy
n sulfur wiljmap
n tar (dark viscous liquid obtained by destructive distillation) rnurnmup
n tin (the metal) rtawap
n water nunuy
n wax ngirnmurt
n wood (the substance) ljul
n wool rruw
n beer njankilj
aj bitter rtituw
n bread rnung
n butter rnulatj
n cheese ljarlalj
n chocolate ping
n flavor, taste wir
n flour (grain-powder) tjinjmun
n food rnart
n honey tirtirr
n milk wirnkurn
n pasta, noodles kangum
n pizza rlart
n salad riljpum
n sandwich rrirlmurn
n sausage winjtjurn
n soup nukan
aj sour parr
n spice, seasoning rlitim
n sugar tung
aj sweet yiwim
n vinegar nurlutj
n wine rurlpak
n arch tjunmart
n band, tape, flat strip tjirn
n block (solid flat-surfaced mass of material) kankup
n branch (small part going out from main part) narlak
n bump, protrusion latj
n card (stiff rectangle of material) tanjpilj
n circle pirlarr
n coil tipiy
n cone wangkay
n crack, fissure njanmay
n cross (perpendicular intersection of linear items) tiljmirr
n crystal yinj
n cube rnunmut
n curve tanjkurr
n cylinder karnum
n dent, nick, indentation purnut
n disk, disc mangkurt
n drop (of liquid) kutjmur
n film (very thin layer) nguljmaw
aj flared (opening up or spreading out from axis) nakat
n foam, froth rrirlkurt
n form, shape kut
n furrow, rut, groove tiljkuk
n garbage, trash, rubbish njarlkuy
n gas ngimpirl
n helix (any corkscrew-shaped object) munil
n hole njulj
n jelly (gelatinous semi-solid material), gel ngutiy
n juice (fluid extracted from something) nurlkurt
n layer njurip
n line (series of contiguous points) rruljar
n liquid pirnmuw
n loop, circuit, closed curve njanjiy
n lump, clod, blob, piece of no particular shape nirunj
n mark (visible traces left behind) ngakar
n matter, material, substance rtart
n object (concrete tangible thing) rtarlam
n opening, orifice nguy
n oval, ellipse kinj
aj parallel nanap
n paste (any thick soft dough-like material) njinjung
n pattern (apparent systematic interrelationship) ljak
n pile, heap, stack of things or of a substance yang
n plane (flat surface) rranj
n plug, seal, stopper rlinjtjutj
n powder rnunjtjal
n pyramid njaljuw
n ray rlun
n rectangle yaljtjulj
n ring, torus nirn
n rust, corrosion ranj
n scratch tjinj
n sheath purnuk
n sheet (thin rectangle of paper/cloth/etc.) tjarlurn
n shower, sprinkle king
n smoke lirt
n solid (not a gas or liquid) lumutj
n sphere rlunwim
n spike, barb, cleat, thorn rripil
n spiral, whorl yitj
n square niljtjulj
n stripe tjuw
n surface turnputj
n swelling, inflation njiljpurn
aj tapered (becoming narrower toward an end) ming
n thread, filament yanjkuk
n triangle piljkut
n wave kurlkar
n wedge watjping
n wrinkle, crease tjaruk
aj flat, planar luljtjirt
aj level, even (on the same level) palpilj
aj smooth ljanirr
aj rough, coarse, contra-smooth rraljpilj
aj straight (not bent) rtinjum
aj bent kurlmanj
aj pure, unadulterated, uncontaminated tjaljkam
aj clean rnankik
aj dirty, contra-clean ljurlur
aj open (not shut) kurpart
aj closed, shut ngurlap
aj wet rlurlpunj
aj dry tjawur
aj sharp, keen, pointy, acute rrinur
aj dull, blunt (of little sharpness) puluk
aj soft, malleable, yielding to pressure patjmiy
aj hard, firm, resistant to pressure mimap
aj flexible (easily able to bend) tinwarr
aj stiff, rigid rtirr
aj elastic (able to regain shape/size after deformation) rtilj
aj durable, resilient, robust, strong (in this sense) njatal
aj fragile, delicate lirram
n weight (degree of heaviness or lightness) ngatjalj
aj heavy (of much weight) ljam
aj light (of little weight) yitjmunj
aj solid (contra-hollow) litj
aj hollow tjinkul
aj snug (just large enough to contain X), tight (in this sense) rrurn
aj loose (contra-snug), baggy yulinj
aj taut, tight, tense, strained yurlung
aj loose (contra-taut), slack ljunjkurr
aj viscous, thick (of high viscosity) rnirliw
aj runny, thin (of little viscosity) tjiyutj
Tags: ,

M17 Lexicon 1
Kastelo Verda
vesperto

The following is a list of root morphemes. Nouns are given in the nominative case. Verbs are given in the completive aspect.

[KEY: aj = adjective, av = adverb, cj = conjunction, n = noun, num = numeral, pn = pronoun, pr = preposition, pt = particle]

pn I (1st person singular) yan
pn we (dual, inclusive "with you") kur
pn we (dual, exclusive "without you") ljap
pn we (plural, inclusive "with you") milj
pn we (plural, exclusive "without you") pirt
pn you (singular) njar
pn you (dual) njaw
pn you (plural) rtir
pn he, she (animate) rruk
pn one (indefinite animate(s)/person(s)) tjap
pn they (dual, animates) ngir
pn they (plural, animates) rlim
pn it (inanimate) runj
pn they (dual, inanimates) walj
pn they (plural, inanimates) ljirt

pr about (pertaining to; on the topic of) rnurlay
pr above, over tjay
pr across (at / to the other side of) rtalart
pr after (later than; in the future of) piljkay
pr around, encircling, surrounding ngunilj
pr at (in the same location as) rtalkat
pr because of, due to marnmiw
pr before, in front of, ahead of (spatially) murn
pr before, prior to, earlier than waljmurl
pr behind, in back of, to the rear of rlapilj
pr between, among, amidst, inter- rinjkik
pr beyond, farther than, exceeding nutjmiw
pr by means of, via, per, with (using; through instrumentality of) tutjilj
pr during ning
pr except for, besides, apart from, other than, excluding rnaljpay
pr for (to benefit; destined for; for the purpose of) timinj
pr for (in exchange for) liljulj
pr from, out of, away from wil
pr in (located inside of) riljirn
pr instead of, rather than tiljkiw
pr like, similar to ngan
pr near, close to yuw
pr of (owned by; belonging to; associated with; = genitive) rlurpim
pr of (containing the measured quantity: "two liters of water") rturrang
pr on (resting on; touching the top or other surface of) ratiw
pr outside of, exterior to linj
pr/cj than, compared to rlulkut
pr through ngurnpalj
pr to, towards, at (moving toward) ljuy
pr under, below, beneath tjurnmilj
pr with (accompanied by) yirran
pr without, with no ..., lacking turn
v be (intransitive predicative copula) nirlput
v exist rlunjup
v become (begin to be; acquire the quality...) yirlkarn
v cause (induce something to be/happen) rtamap
v make, render (impart quality X to Y; e.g. "I make you happy") njimung
v do, perform, engage in (specified activity) tjingirr
v have (possess / be furnished with) njatirl
aux v pres can (is/are able to ...) rirnmil
aux v pres should, ought to (is/are expected/advised to ...) njum
aj/pn this (demonstrative) nar
aj/pn that (demonstrative) rraw
aj/pn that yonder (demonstrative) ngut
cj and, plus tjirnkuw
cj but, however yarlkirr
cj if (on condition that...; supposing that...) kalak
cj or narpil
cj that (e.g. "I know that you are right") paljtjik
av also, additionally, too lirlpun
av apart, separately wuwip
av here (in/to this place) njarril
av how? (in what manner?) njuljkarn
av how much/many? rlinj
av maybe, perhaps, possibly mim
av not kankurr
av only, solely, exclusively tjuljkatj
av there (at/to that place) pantart
av together ratjal
av when? (at what time?) ruljkiw
av where? (at/to what place?) nankut
pn, aj which? yukul
pn who? kip
av why? (for what reason?) rlarrilj
aj any (no particular one of) nil
aj every, each rnanj
n person, human being rtunmurl
n baby, infant kanmal
n child kiw
n boy rlarlar
n girl putup
n man (adult male person) narnurt
n woman (adult female person) ngarnmil
n family ljirrut
n father marnmart
n mother njartirr
n marriage (spousal relationship) ngunjtjurr
n husband njup
n wife yiljat
n son rruy
n daughter lulparn
n brother ruy
n sister tjarl
n chief, leader rnarnurr
n king rninjirn
n queen rnurlpap
n president lap
n prime minister rarpim
n dictator, tyrant wungkirl
n master, lord tjungkirt
n slave kilan
n soldier rrikit
n ambassador maljmiy
n member (of group/organization) palkilj
n friend tjawing
n enemy ngankip
n Mister, Mr. nin
n Ms., Miss/Mrs. rrurpung
n Miss rnayiw
n Mrs. ninjtjut
n club, society (voluntary association re: a common interest) rnik
n committee (group appointed to do a task) wultarl
n community (individuals sharing space / culture) tjutj
n culture (the customs and beliefs of a people) rritam
n individual (one considered separately from one's species) marpaw
n people (a people), folk, the members of an ethnic group / nation rnanwurn
n public, populace, the people (as in People's Republic) ngirlrtirl
n race (group of people with similar characteristics) liltim
n team, crew, squad ngak
n abdomen kutj
n anus ljanjpurr
n arm (shoulder to hand) tunmam
n back (dorsal area) kurt
n beard tul
n blood lurnir
n body narnrtirr
n bone palirn
n brain yit
n breast, mammary witjing
n buttock nganj
n cheek (side of face below eye) ljulpun
n chest (upper front of torso) rtungpurl
n chin njinjtjurl
n ear rlarnrtart
n egg nutun
n eye tjamalj
n face njiljirl
n feather njing
n feces, dung, excrement lurnrturr
n fetus (foetus), embryo wiming
n finger muyay
n fist katjung
n foot (on which something stands) rting
n forehead ljarnin
n gene kunwup
n hair (a strand of fibrous material growing from the body) milmurr
n hair (the hairs atop one's head thought of as a collective entity) ngirnman
n hand wurul
n head ljatil
n heart (coronary muscle) ljurnrtarl
n heel rtulkin
n hip rtul
n horn (bone-like growth from animal's head) ljal
n intestines, gut(s), viscera ngarr
n iris (of eye) tup
n kidney rtim
n knee rinal
n leg njulmirl
n lip yin
n liver yarlalj
n lung rliljim
n meat, flesh rnilpalj
n mouth tjin
n muscle njupun
n nail (fingernail) wik
n navel ngunj
n neck wirurl
n nerve nung
n nose wingalj
n organ (of body) njiljkilj
n palm (of hand) nirlkang
n penis luwur
n shell rtitj
n shoulder njun
n skeleton ljangkirr
n skin rin
n spine, backbone kurlutj
n stomach rlup
n sweat, perspiration ngirlmarn
n tail rayak
n tear(drop(s)) pirlrtirr
n testicle rnimaw
n throat wurlkarr
n thumb tirraw
n toe panjpalj
n tongue (body-part) nangurt
n tooth ljilmit
n urine palarn
n vagina yulil
n vein, blood vessel rriralj
n waist tjanmart
n wing (of bird etc.) ljit
n wound njarn
n wrist tjatutj
n berry (small pulpy fruit) tatjanj
n bud (of flower/leaf) rnurl
n flower talanj
n fruit ngarl
n leaf rtirnpatj
n nut (hard-shelled fruit/seed with separable shell and kernel) yarr
n pod (seed pod) yalpurn
n root (of a plant) rrurirn
n seed wun
n sprout (young shoot of plant) ljarlal
aj alive tjil
aj dead miwaw
n birth rlinjkay
n mature, adult ljutj
aj healthy ranmarr
n disease, illness, sickness njinjtjup
aj fat, obese, plump rlutil
n sex, gender ljiy
aj female ngil
aj male kunjmung
aj neuter (neither male nor female) rirt
n sense (ability to perceive a given kind of stimuli) tjuwinj
n pain rlir
n pleasure lar
aj tired, weary yartung
aj refreshed, zesty, perky yiputj
v sleep paljtjarr
aj awake pampur
n fever yumpum
v bite watj
v breathe wipting
v catch (stop the motion of and seize in the hands) rrun
v climb rlurpak
v copulate, have sex (with) ngirtik
v crawl lurrutj
v cry out, shout, yell rlip
v cry, weep njarl
v dance tingpirl
v die lurr
v drink tut
v drown (die/kill via immersion) tarlirt
v eat tjirlkuy
v feel (perceive with the tactile sense) pum
v gesture rinj
v hold, grasp ram
v hunt, pursue (with intent to capture and/or devour) yankaw
v jump, leap pumpir
v kick kanmirt
v kill ngirr
v kiss ljurl
v laugh likarr
v lie (recline horizontally) ljulpum
v live (be alive) lurn
v run ljantirn
v shave yurlpurt
v sit (be in a sitting position) kuljpun
v smile rtirtaw
v sneeze njangar
v spit manj
v squat rtum
v stand rtangkun
v swallow muptirn
v swim rtarruk
v taste (perceive the flavor of) rlatj
v throw, toss rlurt
v touch rurnmunj
v vomit lum
v walk munwalj
v wrestle pil
n animal (non-vegetable creature) kurtang
n ant (insect of family Formicidae) rrulpurl
n bear (animal of Ursidae family) ljur
n bee (member of genus Apis) njanwaw
n bird (egg-laying feathered animal with wings) malar
n butterfly rlurl
n cat (Felis catus) rarit
n chicken pitjarr
n cockroach (insect of order Blattaria) maltil
n cow/bull, cattle (bovine animal of either sex) kuljtjirr
n deer (animal of family Cervidae) tjiw
n dog (Canis familiaris) witjiy
n donkey, ass (Equus asinus) narlun
n dragon (winged serpent with crested head and large claws) rnimum
n fish tjar
n fly (small winged insect) kurlpart
n fox (member of genus Vulpes) kang
n frog (web-footed tailless leaping amphibian) ril
n goat (animal of genus Capra) yikulj
n grasshopper rtultatj
n horse (Equus caballus) muwilj
n insect rlingang
n kangaroo njutarl
n lion (Felis leo) napurn
n lizard nunkip
n lobster kutarl
n mammal njut
n mantis (insect of order Manteodea) pupalj
n monkey, small primate nganmarr
n mosquito yayinj
n mouse winwap
n pig, swine (omnivorous mammal of family Suidae) yikirn
n rabbit (animal of family Leporidae) mulkarn
n reptile lir
n sheep (Ovis aries) katj
n snake, serpent (reptile of suborder Serpentes or Ophidia) ljinuw
n spider, arachnid ljarn
n squirrel (rodent of family Sciuridae) rtuljmung
n tiger (Felis tigris) niljpaw
n turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) liljang
n turtle (reptile of order Testudinata) taljpirl
n virus wum
n whale (large marine mammal of order Cetacea) lanjmilj
n wolf (Canis lupus) pirtirl
n worm nurn
n apple (tree/fruit of genus Malus) rtilkurr
n bamboo (plant/stem of genera Bambusa / Arundinaria / Dendrocalamus) watart
n banana (plant/fruit of genus Musa) lal
n bean (lima/snap/etc.: plant/seed of genus Phaseolus or similar) rtanir
n cabbage (plant/leaves of sp. Brassica oleracea capitata) rurl
n carrot (plant/root of sp. Daucus carota sativus) rlarnurr
n coffee (plant/seeds of sp. Coffea arabica) ngipil
n cork (tree/elastic tissue of sp. Quercus suber) rlurr
n corn, maize (plant/seeds of sp. Zea mays) njangirl
n cotton (plant/fibers of genus Gossypium) warnkirl
n cucumber (Cucumis sativus) pinmirl
n date (tree/fruit of sp. Phoenix dactylifera) karr
n fig (tree/fruit of genus Ficus) ngutjmirt
n flax (Linum usitatissimum) tjurr
n garlic (herb of sp. Allium sativum) parrim
n ginger (plant/rhizome of genus Zingiber) njil
n ginseng (plant/root of genus Panax) tjanar
n gourd (plant/hard-rinded fruit of genera Lagenaria & Cucurbita) pip
n grape (plant/fruit of genus Vitis) milik
n grass (monocotyledonous plant of family Gramineae) rlit
n hemp, marijuana (plant/material of sp. Cannabis sativa) ngurnunj
n kelp (seaweed of orders Laminariales and Fucales) ying
n lentil (plant/seeds of sp. Lens culinaris) ljirlirt
n lettuce (plant/leaves of genus Lactuca) ljutjirn
n mandarin, tangerine (tree/fruit of sp. Citrus reticulata) larlmuw
n mint (plant of family Labiatae) puljpurr
n mushroom (a complex aerial fleshy fruiting body of a fungus) rrinjuw
n mustard (plant of sp. Brassica hirta / B. nigra / B. juncea) rrintang
n oak (tree of genus Quercus) karnkutj
n oat (plant/seed of genus Avena) rirnmanj
n olive (tree/fruit of sp. Olea europaea) kalmum
n onion (plant/bulb of sp. Allium sepa) tarrart
n orange (tree/fruit of Citrus sinensis / related spp.) wurnmuw
n pea (plant/seed of sp. Pisum sativum) njunung
n peanut (plant/seed/pod of sp. Arachis hypogaea) rniljpilj
n pepper (hot/sweet/bell pepper -- plant/pod of genus Capsicum) tjurraw
n pepper (black -- plant/seed of sp. Piper nigrum) yungkan
n pine (coniferous tree of genus Pinus) tjik
n plum (certain trees/fruits of genus Prunus) ljun
n potato (plant/tuber of sp. Solanum tuberosum) parl
n rice (plant/seed of sp. Oryza sativa) njuljmit
n rose (plant/flower of genus Rosa) rrul
n safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) pinj
n sesame (plant/seed of genus Sesamum) ljarlrtum
n soya, soybean (plant/seed of sp. Glycine max) ljiljmam
n spinach (plant/leaves of sp. Spinacia oleracea) rturlart
n squash, melon (plant/fruit of genus Cucurbita grown for edible fruit) rtanj
n sunflower (plant/bloom of sp. Helianthus annuus) nurraw
n tea (plant/leaves of sp. Camellia sinensis) yanjang
n tobacco (plant/leaves of sp. Nicotiana tabacum) tjarniw
n tomato (plant/berry of genus Lycopersicon) nginirn
n wheat (plant/seed of sp. Triticum aestivum) rtiw
n bush, shrub tan
n garden kuninj
n grain(s), cereal crop(s) and their seed(s) rlungal
v harvest, reap mingpiy
n plant (a vegetable life-form) tjinjanj
n tree lur
n bay (small body of water offset from lake or sea) ruw
n beach, shore lirtip
n cave rnin
n cliff rraliy
n cloud tjingpiw
n desert yulmirt
n earth (terra firma contrasted with sea and heaven) marnmitj
n earthquake tilj
n eclipse tjarirl
n field (unbroken expanse of land) multirt
n flood, deluge marr
n fog rtarlrturl
n forest yultat
n hail taltun
n hill (smaller than a mountain) witjit
n island miw
n lake nirnmam
n lightning lutj
n moon (natural satellite of a planet) rnulj
n mountain manwap
n nature (that which occurs spontaneously; the non-artificial world) tjirrutj
n planet kanjtjiw
n rain rralun
n rainbow njap
n river njutjmat
n sea, ocean ngiljkat
n sky kanalj
n snow tjunjpuw
n star ljumap
n storm mil
n sun rtamak
n swamp, marsh wankur
n thunder tjaljmuw
n tide njuyurn
n tornado wunj
n universe, cosmos kart
n valley lamup
n volcano manung
n weather kapip
n wind katjanj
n world rlarnrtiw
n arrow (sharp-tipped shaft shot from a bow) yirr
n axe nanwul
n balloon tjir
n bar, rod lanjitj
n barrel, cask ljung
n basket wingpiw
n bed rniram
n bell wutanj
n blade mirpay
n blanket (large piece of soft material used as a cover) marlrtin
n board rtinkaw
n bomb luljurt
n boomerang wampay
n bottle ngay
n bow (for arrows) kurn
n bowl (deep round dish) ngaljtjuy
n box (rigid rectangular receptacle) kamirr
n brake tarnkin
n brick (hard clay block) tjurlirn
n broom njunjmurl
n brush nam
n bucket, pail nilj
n bullet tiray
n button (on a shirt etc.) luk
n cage pirn
n can (presealed metal container) {British: tin} ljukuy
n candle rurnuk
n cannon rruyuw
n chain (connected series of rings or links) yay
n chair (furniture for one person to sit on) rrimut
n cigarette ruturn
n clock rapuw
n club, cudgel puptart
n coin maljut
n comb rram
n computer (electronic instruction-obeying information-handler) yatunj
n container wing
n cord, cable (thicker than wire) taturt
n cover (thing put onto or extended over something else) wurn
n cup (small bowl with handle) murlirl
n curtain minguk
n dial (circle marked with numbers/symbols) piljart
n dish (any shallow concave container) rnakngarr
n doll, effigy rlunj
n dome (anything shaped like an upside-down bowl) rnarn
n drain (device that removes unwanted liquid) ngin
n drill rulj
n drum (hollow musical instrument beaten with sticks or hands) rrawik
n envelope (folded paper covering a letter) liltil
n fan (device to create air current) lanjkup
n fence (outdoor barrier supported by posts) kurrip
n file (tool for abrading) miwak
n flag, banner laratj
n fork (instrument with >=2 prongs for picking up something) rningulj
n frame (structure supporting or surrounding something) tjanjtjaw
n furniture kurning
n gear (toothed wheel) latjmil
n guitar (stringed instrument played with the fingers) naljaw
n gun (ballistic weapon) rtarrap
n hammer wutjinj
n handle (part of tool by which it is held) wirlutj
n hinge rartang
n hook ljinjing
n horn (makes noise when blown) rlingpirn
n hourglass nulut
n jar, jug (big wide-mouthed bottle) paw
n key (metal device for operating lock) rlarrart
n knife wangir
n knob rlat
n ladder kil
n lamp rlimang
n lens ljingkang
n lever ritj
n lock (device for securing doors) waljmang
n machine (device with moving parts) ngal
n match (little fire-stick) yurr
n microscope pirturr
n mirror ngurr
n motor, engine lirn
n nail (pointy fastener) lanalj
n needle rnay
n net narlup
n oven tam
n package, packet, parcel rlaljtjurr
n paddle, oar (stick with broad end) rtay
n pan (broad shallow cooking dish) ljirtak
n patch (a piece used to cover/repair a flaw) purlarn
n pedal warlirr
n pen (writing tool that uses ink) rnurlitj
n pencil, crayon (writing tool that uses semi-solid substance) rlal
n pillow, cushion ljanjpal
n pipe (a hard tube for transporting liquid) linkur
n plate (shallow dish, usually round) lirr
n plow (plough) paptuy
n pocket lirlrtiy
n pole, stick (long bar) yimpan
n post (vertical pole anchored in ground) rning
n pot (deep round vessel) tikarr
n pulley yanjmul
n pump nutjik
n rack (framework of bars for storage) wiljang
n radio apparatus, wireless set rturlrtur
n rail (usually horizontal bar for restraining/supporting things) rnilkuw
n rake pimpirn
n razor wiljpurr
n rope njutut
n rug, mat njutjput
n sack, bag rikngim
n sail rangurl
n saw (tool) rlak
n scale (device to measure weight) pikirt
n scissors tiy
n screen, mesh puwik
n screw (threaded fastener) warruk
n sign (board with public notice written on it) yirnkan
n shelf wuy
n shield (a protective implement) rtamur
n shovel tjakngik
n spear, lance rurnpun
n sponge (real/synthetic corpse of animal of phylum Porifera) yaknginj
n spool, reel (cylinder onto which something is wound) mikal
n spoon rnurnmitj
n spring (metal helix) wamir
n staple (fastener) rirnkit
n strap tjanam
n string (thicker than thread and thinner than rope) ran
n stylus tunwik
n sword nirnak
n syringe timir
n table (piece of furniture with flat top) rriljurl
n telephone rtarnulj
n telescope putjpirr
n television set rtikap
n toilet, water closet lartinj
n tool, utensil, implement rnurlkurl
n tongs tulal
n towel ljulpang
n toy, plaything rit
n trap yuljpur
n tray (shallow rectangular dish) rlunanj
n umbrella waljput
n valve (flow-controller) rtinjir
n weapon nut
n wheel rnirr
n wire (long thread-like piece of metal) punil
n wrench {British: spanner} lirnulj
n apron nirnatj
n belt yip
n coat (heavy outer garment with sleeves) tjarr
n collar rnunirt
n eyeglasses ljarruk
n garment (item of clothing) nalkit
n glove rnunjkang
n harness paltaw
n hat, cap rrapat
n helmet tjirlparr
n jacket (a short and/or lightweight coat) rnunj
n necktie larn
n pants, trousers rtaljparr
n shirt ljaltan
n shorts, trunks (trousers extending no lower than knees) pantar
n shoe lakim
n skirt, kilt, dress (any torso-garment open at the bottom) mamarl
n sock, hose, stocking yikngil
n uniform (special garments worn by members of a group) yarrutj
n veil yapurn
n building, edifice (structure with walls and roof) rling
n attic, garret mayirt
n ceiling ljirnrtanj
n cellar, basement mulatj
n chimney linkalj
n door rlirr
n elevator {British: lift} rruput
n fireplace, hearth njatj
n floor (bottom of room) rniljkarr
n roof mip
n room, chamber yul
n stair(s) pitjim
n wall rrutjung
n window warlpinj
n church (building or institution of public worship) tinmulj
n factory ljurtip
n hospital maljul
n hotel, inn rnarlal
n house (a free-standing man-made dwelling-building) rluy
n library ljurnim
n mill (place where raw materials are processed) pinjmarn
n prison, jail rrak
n school kiyur
n store, shop, boutique rriyarn
n tavern, bar, pub rrurlparr
n theater rnurnrtir
n university wilmarr
n bridge ljir
n farm ljalarl
n park (public outdoor area) nginjup
n market (place where goods are bought/sold/traded) rrang
n tower muy
n agency, bureau rlutjutj
n army kangkirt
n authority (the right/power to command) njarnur
n campaign (for political office) tuniw
n constitution (charter of an organization) turin
v control kat
n court (of law) wit
n crime rtatalj
v elect (select by voting) njangik
aj free (at liberty) rnilan
n government purt
aj independent njin
aj international kinjtjun
n jury rnip
n law (a rule enforced by a government) rrinkit
aj military tirnarn
n nation, state (political entity) murt
v obey minkil
aj official (issued with authority) nguyinj
v organize (bring X's together to perform a task) wanwiy
n parliament, congress (legislative body of elected officers) turlmim
n party (political), sect (religious) rrarpirr
v permit, allow, let lalj
n police (organization to enforce laws) rlitil
n politics mirnal
v prohibit, forbid, contra-permit tjaljpirl
n province (of Canada etc.), prefecture, state (of USA etc.) kir
v resign rlatjuw
n rule, regulation rrarlurt
n submission, surrender purl
n tax rlalpap
n trial (in court) ljulmir
v unite map
v vote kartal
n war tjayirl
v accept (willingly receive) nulil
n account (record of money received/paid/owed) rrurpit
n bank (monetary institution) lurtap
n bill, invoice (statement of money owed) nipat
v borrow rnangpup
n business, commerce rritil
v buy, purchase rarnir
aj cheap, inexpensive rnak
n check (written order directing a bank to pay from an account) nirrin
n company (a business organization), firm tjirtul
n contract (agreement-document) ngingup
n credit (permission to borrow money) rlilj
n debt, obligation to pay njanj
v exchange, trade, swap ninkiy
aj expensive, costly ljirlmit
aj frugal, thrifty rnikalj
aj generous, charitable luljpuk
vt get, acquire, gain, obtain mirl
v give ngitjatj
n insurance (protective contractual arrangement) wuljtjirt
v invest win
n job, employment rtunjiy
v keep, retain, go on having (e.g. "you should keep this book") tjanmarn
v lack (be without) ngarirt
v lend nurpuy
vt lose (cease having; contra-acquire) mimit
n merchandise, goods, wares ngirnal
n money wal
v offer (present for acceptance or rejection) rlinjtjat
v own (possess according to law or custom) rlirn
v pay waltirt
aj poor, impoverished rtutj
n price, cost rrip
aj private (contra-public) rnunjirt
n prize, award kuwiw
n profit, gain nanturn
v provide, supply, furnish lulal
aj public (available to most or all persons) ring
v punish lup
v receive kapik
v reject, refuse (contra-accept) rnul
n responsibility, liability, accountability rumpuk
v reward minturl
aj rich, wealthy rarnkum
v sell rturpaw
v steal (take in a criminal way) wawung
n store, cache, reserve, reservoir rimpur
v take (in the sense of E-o "preni", G "nehmen", Sp "tomar") rut
n ticket, coupon wiyart
n value (the quality of being useful and/or desirable), worth mik
n angel, fairy (supernatural flying humanoid) putjang
v bless (wish good upon) rtilur
v curse, damn (wish evil upon) rlarlkatj
n ghost (manifestation of dead person's soul) muw
n god, diety tjitj
n heaven, celestial realm, Valhala etc. rraljtjutj
n hell, Hades ljuljpum
aj holy, sacred njay
n magic, sorcery rrurlrtarr
v pray (communicate with god(s)) ljutirr
n priest, clergyman tiw
n religion kinjut
n revelation, mystical vision yuritj
n ritual, rite, ceremony lulmiw
n soul, spirit (believed to outlive the body) ting
v admire yam
aj alert rlarr
aj angry tirl
v approve (of) miyam
n art (creative craft; productive use of talent) yirt
n attention (active perception) rluptarl
n behavior, conduct rruwun
v believe (accept as true) rrut
v blame rrit
aj boring, tedious rimulj
v calculate, reckon ruljart
n care, concern (about someone / something) nutj
n caution, prudence, carefulness yanj
v celebrate, rejoice rlaltin
v choose, pick (out), select one of many possibilities ljing
n comfort (freedom from pain and/or worry) rluljkal
v compare njirr
aj conscious, aware parnpip
n courage, bravery lulirr
aj dear, precious, cherished pang
v decide rak
n disappointment rnukngum
v distinguish, differentiate, tell one from another rrilak
v doubt rlunjmap
n dream rturn
n embarrassment kirn
n enthusiasm, zeal rnarnputj
v expect, anticipate (believe that X will come/happen) rratjmim
v experience (consciously live through an event) rnanin
v favor, prefer ngiljmal
v fear (be afraid of) pikarn
v feel (experience an emotion/sentiment) tjapip
aj foolish tjayul
v forget (contra-remember) tjart
v forgive, pardon tjutjirn
aj funny, comical rnanjpuk
aj grateful, thankful yilpal
aj greedy rninar
v guard, monitor, watch over mumay
v guess, conjecture rnuniw
v guide, lead tjilut
aj guilty, blame-worthy yinjtjinj
n habit, custom, routine practice rtarlip
aj happy rlarnpup
v hate mipuk
v hope rnarlmirr
aj humble, modest rlitj
n idea, concept (thought-bundle) yir
v imagine rrumurr
aj important ljirnkik
aj innocent, contra-guilty turr
aj insane, crazy, mad rral
aj intelligent tulun
v intend, mean to, do deliberately, have as a purpose rlur
n interest (desire to pay attention to something), fascination kamang
v invent (plan something which has never been made before) ljutjang
n jealousy, envy karnmurn
v judge (compare something to criteria), form an opinion about rlikunj
v know tjuljkat
n knowledge tjilitj
v learn rlilaw
v like, enjoy (derive pleasure from) miptuk
n logic (formalized process of reasoning) rtiy
aj lonely (feeling undesirable solitude) numpinj
v love rtunaw
aj loyal yilj
n mercy rarnmalj
n mind ngilmalj
n mystery rritatj
n neglect, negligence, apathy parat
aj nice, kind, affable rtulkirn
v notice, observe ljurnmatj
n opinion kurrirt
n patience njaljkarl
n peace (freedom from fighting or turmoil) warut
v perceive, detect yarrin
v pity, feel compassion toward, feel sorry for tanj
n plan, design linjmim
n play (performed by actors on stage), drama nging
v pretend, act, feign rnaw
n pride (proudness; self-respect) rlukngum
n reason, explanation, justification, rationale njiwim
n reasoning, rational thought yak
v recognize rnangil
v regret rurlpalj
v remember yintarl
v respect, venerate, esteem turnkin
n revenge, vengeance, retribution, getting even ruk
aj sad, unhappy, melancholy tjuwart
n satisfaction wanmalj
v seek, search (for), look for tjarlmutj
v seem, appear to be, give the impression of wungkurn
aj serious, earnest, grave murlpatj
n shame witj
v study puk
aj stupid ljaljkar
n subject, topic of discussion kalj
v suppose, presume yarlul
v surprise, startle ngurlpay
n talent, skill, knack turlputj
v teach kamulj
v tempt lunjutj
n theory nirnulj
v think rlilanj
v trust nuptatj
v understand, comprehend rruwuw
v want, wish, desire ngatjmik
n whim, caprice tjanjuk
aj wise naw
n worry, anxiety rnunal
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M17
Kastelo Verda
vesperto

M17

Project Australian Aboriginal

Author:Viktor Medrano
Initialized:2006.04.20
Last modified:2009.10.13
Concept:This project recreates a mimic of an Australian Aboriginal language.
Methodology:A lexicon of 3000 root words, with about 1600 defined, is randomly generated using the LangMaker program with specified phonological parameters.

"Before the nineteenth century over 200 Aboriginal languages were spoken in Australia. Today half of these are extinct and only a few score of the remainder have enough speakers to survive for more than another generation. Grammatical information is available for about 150 languages, mostly in the form of brief grammars."

from page 1 of Australian Aboriginal Grammar (1987) by Barry Blake

Phonology

Inventory

Phonemic equivalents in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) are given within slashes.

Consonants

There are 17 consonants in the constructed language M17.

 labialalveolarretroflexpalatalvelar
voiceless stopp /p/t /t/rt /ʈ/tj /c/k /k/
nasalm /m/n /n/rn /ɳ/nj /ɲ/ng /ŋ/
lateral l /l/rl /ɭ/lj /ʎ/ 
flap rr /ɾ/r /ɽ/  
glidalw /w/  y /j/ 

"Retroflex" refers loosely to the top of the mouth cavity between the teeth and the palate. The digraphs <rt>, <rn>, and <rl> may be a bit tricky to recognize; the <r> in these digraphs indicates retroflexion and is not pronounced as an /ɽ/.

<lj> is pronounced like <li> in English <vermilion>. <nj> is pronounced like the Spanish <ñ> as in <piña> or like <ni> in English <onion>. <tj> is pronounced like <ts> in English <its> or even like <t> in English <picture>. The aforementioned palatals are thus pronounced even at the end of syllables and words. <y> is pronounced as in English <yoyo>.

Vowels

a /a/i /ɪ/u /ʊ/

<i> is pronounced as in English <pit> and <u> is pronounced as in English <put>. The three-vowel system is common in the Pama-Nyungan language family.

Phonotactics

The phonotactics of M17 is partly inspired by the Aboriginal language Njungar of South-West Australia.

V = {vowels}
C = {consonants}
K = {clusters} = {lp, rlp, ljp, mp, rnp, njp, ngp, lt, rlrt, ljtj, nt, rnrt, njtj, lk, rlk, ljk, nk, rnk, njk, ngk, lm, rlm, ljm, nm, rnm, njm, tjm, tjp, kng, pt, nw, rp}

The structure of a root morpheme may be CVC, CVCVC, or CVKVC.

Stress predictably lies on the first syllable of a word.

Syntax

Nouns

Nouns are inherently numberless, being either singular or plural. To indicate that the noun is definitely plural, one reduplicates the noun.

wampay (boomerang / boomerangs) > wampay-wampay (boomerangs)

There is no article, definite ('the') or indefinite ('a'/'an'), that usually accompanies the noun. However, in instances where one needs to indicate definiteness, one uses the equivalents for 'this' (nar) or 'that' (rraw) or 'that yonder' (ngut).

Case System

Similar to languages like German, Latin, and Russian, an Australian Aboriginal language usually has a case system, in which nouns and adjectives have special endings to specify relationships or function. M17 is no exception and tries to be a typical Australian Aboriginal language. M17 has seven cases:

CaseRelation / Function
nominativeintransitive subject
ergativetransitive subject
accusativetransitive direct object
dative'for'
locative'at' / 'in' / 'on'
allative'to'
ablative'from'

A "transitive subject" governs a verb which can take a direct object (The tribe eats kangaroo / The tribe eats). An "intransitive subject" governs a verb which cannot take a direct object (The boomerang flies).

The dative expresses these functions:
[1] indirect object of intransitive verbs (He is jealous of me.)
[2] purpose (He went for the meat.)
[3] beneficiary (He made the spear for me.)
[4] possessor (bird's nest)
[5] recipient of verbs of giving (He gave the spear to me.)
[6] through, across, among, along

The ergative also expresses the instrumental (He hunted with/using the spear).

CaseNoun SuffixAdjectival Concord
nominative__
ergative-a-a
accusative__
dative-i-i
locative-ungk-ungk
allative-angk-angk
ablative-ingk-ingk

CasePronoun SuffixAdjectival Concord
nominative__
ergative__
accusative-u-u
dative-i-i
locative-ungk-ungk
allative-angk-angk
ablative-ingk-ingk

Because of the case system, most Australian languages have great freedom of word order as with M17. However,

[1] topic precedes comment;
[2] focus comes first.

Permutations are possible in M17 which are not possible in English. Constituents may be scattered through the clause. Adjectival concord allows distancing of the noun from the adjective.

Examples

'This big dog bites the tall man in the desert.'

nara witjiya rruljmita ngurput narnurt watjinjk yulmirtungk.
this-erg dog-erg big-erg tall man bite-incompletive desert-locative

Or,

nara witjiya ngurput narnurt yulmirtungk watjinjk rruljmita.

Or,

rruljmita nara witjiya ngurput watjinjk yulmirtungk narnurt.

Or,

nara ngurput narnurt yulmirtungk watjinjk witjiya rruljmita.

Or,

ngurput narnurt watjinjk nara witjiya rruljmita yulmirtungk.

And so on...

Verbs

Many Australian Aboriginal languages have complex verbal paradigms, but some like Njungar in South-West Australia have simple ones. M17 is like Njungar in this respect. In M17, the verb has no grammatical tense, but it has a choice of two aspects:

[1] incompletive or continuative aspect, indicated by the suffix -injk;
[2] completive or perfective aspect, indicated by a null (absent) suffix.

An adverb of time, or a time phrase or clause may indicate tense.

Pronouns

personsingulardualplural
1styanljappirt
1st & 2nd_kurmilj
2ndnjarnjawrtir
3rd, animaterrukngirrlim
3rd, inanimaterunjwaljljirt

Prefixes

Root morphemes have an inherent character of being a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. Root verbs are inherently either transitive or intransitive. Conversion among these is possible by adding a prefix.

PrefixConversion Function
pwa-to transitive verb
pwi-to intransitive verb
twa-to adjective
twi-to adverb
kwa-to noun

titatj (beautiful) > kwatitatj (beauty)
wampay (boomerang) > twawampay (boomerang-like / boomerangish)
njutarl (kangaroo) > pwinjutarl (to become or be or do like or as a kangaroo)
pumpir (to jump) > pwapumpir (to make [someone/something] jump)
rlutil (fat) > pwirlutil (to become or be fat)

Code-switching

As the vocabulary of M17 is quite limited, loanwords from another language may be required. Code-switching between M17 and Interlingua is permissible. When there is no appropriate word in M17, one could rely on the lexicon of Interlingua. Grammatical affixes of M17 are appropriately tacked onto the Interlingua words. Phrases of Interlingua may be interleaved with those of M17. This kind of phenomenon, code-switching, is often the case in diglossic societies wherein two cultures have collided.

Example

(Interlingua is italicized here.)

in australia, nara witjiya rruljmita anxie-a ngurput narnurt watj yulmirtungk quando io visitava.

in Australia, this-erg dog-erg big-erg anxious-erg tall man bite desert-locative when I visit-past.

'In Australia, this big anxious dog bit a tall man in the desert when I visited.'

Bibliography

Blake, Barry. 1987. Australian Aboriginal Grammar. New South Wales: Croom Helm Australia.

Douglas, Wilfrid H. 1976. The Aboriginal Languages of the South-West of Australia. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Advocate Press Pty. Ltd.

Munyari and Ralph Winmar. 1996. Walwalinj: The Hill that Cries. Bentley, Western Australia: Delphin Publishing.

Wurm, S. A. 1972. Languages of Australia and Tasmania. The Hague: Mouton & Co. N. V., Publishers.

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