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Universitato de Vesperto

ĉe Lulu-insulo sur Fraser-rivero. Esperanto ekde 1887.


Latino
Kastelo Verda
vesperto

(Vikipedio)

La etapoj de latino:

Latino, la antikva lingvo de Romo, estis la ĉefa lingvo de la romia imperio kaj de la Katolika Eklezio, kaj interlingvo de okcidenta civilizo ĝis 1750. Inter malkleruloj latino iompostiome simpliĝis kaj fariĝis nova lingvo, vulgara latino, kiu siavice pluevoluiĝis post la disfalo de la imperio, donante la latinidajn lingvojn (la franca, hispana, itala, portugala, rumana, ktp.). La klasika latino ĉesis esti denaske parolata lingvo post ĉirkaŭ la jaro 300. En la lernejoj en la renesanco, latino fariĝis pli korekta kaj klasika laŭ la modelo de Cicerono. Latino ankaŭ estas la radiko, rekte aŭ nerekte, de 75% de la vortprovizo de la angla lingvo.


Sunas
Kastelo Verda
vesperto
Sune varmas hodiaŭ ĉe 25°C ĉi tie.  En Luksoro, Egiptujo, sune varmegas ĉe 41°C.
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Greka Sonevoluo (Greek Sound Evolution)
Kastelo Verda
vesperto
La sonoj de Grekaj literoj ŝanĝiĝas tratempe.

Letter Rom. Class. IPA Koine IPA Byzan. IPA Cont. IPA before αι ε ει ευ η ῃ ηυ ι οι υ υι Notes
Α α A Ā a ā [a/aː] [a/aː] [a] [a] In Classical polytonic, the length distinction of ([a]) and ([aː]) is not indicated usually in writing nor in transcription. However, if needs to be transcribed, ā suffices.
Β β B b [b] [b] [β] [v]  
Γ γ G g [ɡ] [ɡ] [ɣ] [ɣ] [ʝ]  
Δ δ D d [d] [d] [ð] [ð]  
Ε ε E e [e] [ɛ] [e] [e]  
Ϝ ϝ W w [w] N\A Not native to Attic-Ionic (lost in pre-classical times). If pronounced [w], Classical Attic kept it silent and Koine adapted it as ου. If pronounced [β~v], both Classical Attic and Koine adapted it as β.
Ζ ζ Z z [zd] [z/zz] [z/zz] [z/(z)z] Was metrically considered an interchangeably single or double consonant in Koine (typically double between vowels).
Η η Ē ē [ɛː] [eː] [i] [i] Finishes merging with ι/ϊ in Byzantine.
Θ θ Th th [tʰ] [tʰ] [θ] [θ]  
Ι ι ϊ I Ī i ī ï [i/iː] [i/iː] [i] [i] In Classical polytonic, the length distinction of ([i]) and ([iː]) is not indicated usually in writing nor in transcription. However, if needs to be transcribed, ī suffices.
Κ κ K k [k] [k] [k] [k] [c]  
Λ λ L l [l] [l] [l] [l]  
Μ μ M m [m] [m] [m] [m]  
Ν ν N n [n] [n] [n] [n]  
Ξ ξ Ks ks [kʰs] [kʰs] [ks] [ks] See digraph exceptions further down.
Ο ο O o [o] [o] [o] [o]  
Π π P p [p] [p] [p] [p]  
Ρ ρ Rh rh r [hr/r] [(h)r/r] [r] [ɾ] Normal ρ is [r] and transcribed r. In Classical, is voiceless [hr] and transcribed rh, and ρρ or ῤῥ is voiceless [rhr] and transcribed rrh. Koine is [(h)r], and ῤῥ is [r(h)r]. All are voiced [r] in Byzantine onward, except in Atticist writings.
Σ σ ς S s [s] [s] [s] [s] See digraph exceptions further down.
Τ τ T t [t] [t] [t] [t] See diagraph exceptions further down.
Υ υ ϋ Hu Hū hu hū u ū ü [ʉ/ʉː] [y/yː] [y] [i] Originally not a front vowel, the influential Athens dialect articulates it as [y/yː] earlier on. Merges with ι in 10th century Byzantine Greek, but merges with ου in the Old Athenian dialect until it becomes extinct in the 20th century.
Φ φ Ph ph [pʰ] [pʰ] [ɸ] [f]  
Χ χ Kh kh [kʰ] [kʰ] [x] [x] [ç]  
Ψ ψ Ps ps [pʰs] [pʰs] [ps] [ps] See digraph exceptions further down.
Ω ω Ō ō [ɔː] [oː] [o] [o] Merges with ο late in Koine.

Vowel digraphs

Spelling Rom. Class. IPA Koine IPA Byzan. IPA Cont. IPA Notes
Αι αι Ai ai [aɪ] [ɛː] [e] [e] Merges with ε in late Koine among the Hellenists and in Alexandria, and treated as an allophone of it from then on.
ᾼ ᾳ Āi āi [aːj] [aː] [a] [a] Classically spelt ΑΙ. In Koine, becomes collated simply as α as they merge.
Αυ αυ Au Āu au āu [aʊ/aːʊ] [aw/aːw] [av] [av] See αυ/ευ/ηυ exceptions further down.
Ει ει Ei ei [eː] [iː] [i] [i] In the learned Koine pronunciation of the foreign Romans, ει was typically an allophone of η immediately before other vowels, and an allophone of ι everywhere else. Alexandrians treated it as an allophone of in all circumstances, a trend that would become standard in Byzantine.
Ευ ευ Eu eu [eʊ] [ɛw] [ev] [ev] See αυ/ευ/ηυ exceptions further down.
ῌ ῃ Ēi ēi [ɛːj] [eː] [i] [i] Classically spelt ΗΙ. In Koine, becomes collated simply as η as they merge.
Ηυ ηυ Ēu ēu [ɛːʊ] [eːw] [iv] [iv] See αυ/ευ/ηυ exceptions further down.
Οι οι Oi oi [oɪ] [yː] [y] [i] Merges together with and υι in Koine, even earlier in Athens.
Ου ου Ou ou [oː] [uː] [u] [u] Becomes [uː] earlier on in Athens, remaining an allophone of [oː] until ω fills that pronunciation.
Υι υι ϋι Hui hui ui üi [yː] [yː] [y] [i] Merges with in Koine, and earlier on in Athens.
ῼ ῳ Ōi ōi [ɔːj] [oː] [o] [o] Classically spelt ΩΙ. In Koine, becomes collated simply as ω as they merge.
Ωυ ωυ Ōu ōu [ɔːy] [oːy] [oy] [oi] Non-Attic Greek diphthong (originally pronounced [ɔːʊ]), separated into two separate vowels, ωϋ, when loaned into Classical Attic onward.

Consonant digraphs and exceptions

Spelling Rom. Class. IPA Koine IPA Byzan. IPA Cont. IPA before αι ε ει ευ η ῃ ηυ ι οι υ υι Notes
ββ bb [bb] [bb] [ββ] [(v)v]  
γγ ng [ŋɡ] [ŋɡ] [ŋɡ] [ŋɡ] [ŋɟ] In Contemporary pronunciation, in numerous irregular cases, is pronounced [ŋɣ] and [ŋʝ] respectively. Please consult (and preferably cite) a reputable Modern Greek pronunciation source for each word concerned.
γκ nk [ŋk] [ŋk] [ŋk] [ŋɡ] [ŋɟ]  
γκτ nkt [ŋkt] [ŋkt] [ŋkt] [ŋkt]  
γξ nks [ŋkʰs] [ŋkʰs] [ŋks] [ŋks]  
γχ nkh [ŋkʰ] [ŋkʰ] [  ̃x] [ŋx] [ŋç] In Byzantine pronuncation, this phoneme becomes seriously endangered and merges with χ in common speech, later reintroduced under influence from Katharevousa.
δδ dd [dd] [dd] [ðð] [(ð)ð]  
κβ kb [ɡb] [ɡb] [ɡβ] [ɡv]  
κγ kg [ɡɡ] [ɡɡ] [ɡɣ] [ɡɣ] [ɡʝ]  
κδ kd [ɡd] [ɡd] [ɡð] [ɡð]  
κζ kz [ɡʱzd] [ɡʱz] [ɡz] [ɡz]  
κθ kth [kʰtʰ] [kʰtʰ] [kθ] [kθ]  
κκ kk [kk] [kk] [kk] [k(ʰ)] [c(ʰ)]  
κξ kks [kkʰs] [kkʰs] [kks] [k(ʰ)s  
κσ ks [kʰs] [kʰs] [ks] [ks]  
κσμ ksm [ɡʱzm] [ɡʱzm] [ɡzm] [ɡzm]  
κφ kph [kʰpʰ] [kʰpʰ] [kɸ] [kf]  
κχ kkh [kkʰ] [kkʰ] [kx] [kx] [kç]  
κψ kps [kʰpʰs] [kʰpʰs] [kps] [kps]  
λλ ll [ll] [ll] [ll] [(l)l]  
μβ mb [mb] [mb] [mb] [ɱv]  
μμ mm [mm] [mm] [mm] [(m)m]  
μπ mp [mp] [mp] [mp] [mb]  
μπτ mpt [mpt] [mpt] [mpt] [mpt]  
μφ mph [mpʰ] [mpʰ] [  ̃ɸ] [ɱf] In Byzantine pronuncation, this phoneme becomes seriously endangered and merges with φ in common speech, later reintroduced under influence from Katharevousa.
μψ mps [mpʰs] [mpʰs] [mps] [mps]  
νδ nd [nd] [nd] [nd] [nð]  
νζ nz [ːzd] [nz] [ndz] [nz] Not viable in Classical Attic, where the spelling is rare, and the ν is silent and audibly lengthens the preceding vowel instead.
νθ nth [ntʰ] [ntʰ] [  ̃θ] [nθ] In Byzantine pronuncation, this phoneme becomes seriously endangered and merges with θ in common speech, later reintroduced under influence from Katharevousa.
νν nn [nn] [nn] [nn] [(n)n]  
νσ νς ns [ːs] [ns] [  ̃s] [ns] Not viable in Classical Attic, where the spelling is rare, and the ν is silent and audibly lengthens the preceding vowel instead. In Byzantine pronuncation, this phoneme becomes seriously endangered and merges with σ again in common speech, later reintroduced under influence from Katharevousa.
ντ nt [nt] [nt] [nt] [nd]  
ντζ ntz [ːzd] [ndz] [ndz] [ndz] Not viable in Classical Attic, where the spelling is rare, and the ντ is silent and audibly lengthens the preceding vowel instead.
ντσ ντς nts [ːs] [nts] [nts] [nts] Not viable in Classical Attic, where the spelling is rare, and the ντ is silent and audibly lengthens the preceding vowel instead.
ξβ ksb [ɡʱzb] [ɡʱzb] [ɡzβ] [ɡzv]  
ξγ ksg [ɡʱzɡ] [ɡʱzɡ] [ɡzɣ] [ɡzɣ] [ɡzʝ]  
ξδ ksd [ɡʱzd] [ɡʱzd] [ɡzð] [ɡzð]  
ξζ ksz [ɡʱzzd] [ɡʱzz] [ɡzz] [ɡ(z)z]  
ξμ ksm [ɡʱzm] [ɡʱzm] [ɡzm] [ɡzm]  
ππ pp [pp] [pp] [pp] [p(ʰ)]  
πφ pph [ppʰ] [ppʰ] [pɸ] [pf]  
ρρ ῤῥ rrh [rhr] [r(h)r] [rr] [(r)ɾ]  
σβ sb [zb] [zb] [zβ] [zv]  
σγ sg [zɡ] [zɡ] [zɣ] [zɣ] [zʝ]  
σδ sd [zd] [zd] [zð] [zð]  
σζ sz [zzd] [zz] [zz] [(z)z]  
Σμ σμ sm [zm] [zm] [zm] [zm]  
σσ ss [ss] [ss] [ss] [(s)s]  
Τζ τζ tz [zd] [dz] [dz] [dz] Not viable in Classical Attic, where the spelling is rare, and is pronounced as ζ, not audibly lengthening the preceding vowel as νζ does.
τθ tth [ttʰ] [ttʰ] [tθ] [tθ]  
Τσ τσ τς ts [s] [ts] [ts] [ts] Not viable in Classical Attic, where the spelling is rare, and is pronounced as σ, not audibly lengthening the preceding vowel as νσ does.
ττ tt [tt] [tt] [tt] [t(ʰ)]  
ψβ psb [bʱzb] [bʱzb] [bzβ] [bzv]  
ψγ psg [bʱzɡ] [bʱzɡ] [bzɣ] [bzɣ] [bzʝ]  
ψδ psd [bʱzd] [bʱzd] [bzð] [bzð]  
ψζ psz [bʱzzd] [bʱzz] [bzz] [b(z)z]  
ψμ psm [bʱzm] [bʱzm] [bzm] [bzm]  

αυ/ευ/ηυ exceptions

This table uses ευ as an example, but the same principles apply to αυ and ηυ, with α and η instead of ε.

Spelling Rom. Class. IPA Koine IPA Byzan. IPA Cont. IPA before αι ε ει ευ η ῃ ηυ ι οι υ υι Notes
ευβ eub [eʊb] [ɛwb] [eββ] [e(v)v]  
ευθ euth [eʊtʰ] [ɛʍtʰ] [eɸθ] [efθ]  
ευκ euk [eʊk] [ɛʍk] [eɸk] [efk] [efc]  
ευξ euks [eʊkʰs] [ɛʍkʰs] [eɸks] [efks]  
ευπ eup [eʊp] [ɛʍp] [eɸp] [efp]  
ευσ ευς eus [eʊs] [ɛʍs] [eɸs] [efs]  
ευσβ eusb [eʊzb] [ɛwzb] [eβzβ] [evzv]  
ευσγ eusg [eʊzɡ] [ɛwzɡ] [eβzɣ] [evzɣ] [evzʝ]  
ευσδ eusd [eʊzd] [ɛwzd] [eβzð] [evzð]  
ευσμ eusm [eʊzm] [ɛwzm] [eβzm] [evzm]  
ευτ eut [eʊt] [ɛʍt] [eɸt] [eft]  
ευτζ eutz [eʊzd] [ɛwdz] [eβdz] [evdz]  
ευφ euph [eʊpʰ] [ɛʍpʰ] [eɸɸ] [e(f)f]  
ευχ eukh [eʊkʰ] [ɛʍkʰ] [eɸx] [efx] [efç]  
ευψ eups [eʊpʰs] [ɛʍpʰs] [eɸps] [efps]  
ευ eu [eʊ] [ɛʍ] [eɸ] [ef] Specifically in the word-final position.

Consonant-ι exceptions

Even today, most words of learned Ancient Greek origin have ι pronounced as [i], always a full vowel in its own syllable. However, where ι is understood to have come from [j], a [j]-derived pronunciation may reasonably apply. [j] does not enter the spoken language until the Byzantine period, and some words (such as Ἰούλιος) do not today have retroactive [j] pronunciations. But when [j] does contextually apply, this is how.

Spelling Rom. Byzan. IPA Cont. IPA Notes
ι ϊ i [j] [ʝ]  
γι gi [ɣj] [ʝ]  
γγι ngi [ŋɡj] [ŋɟ]  
γκι nki [ŋkj] [ŋɟ]  
γχι nkhi [  ̃xj] [ŋç]  
θι thi [θj] [θç]  
κι ki [kj] [c]  
κγι kgi [ɡɣj] [ɡʝ]  
κκι kki [kkj] [(c)c]  
κχι kkhi [kxj] [kç]  
λι li [lj] [ʎ]  
λλι lli [llj] [(ʎ)ʎ]  
νι ni [nj] [ɲ]  
ννι nni [nnj] [(ɲ)ɲ]  
ξι ksi [ksj] [ksç]  
πι pi [pj] [pç]  
σι si [sj] [sç]  
τι ti [tj] [tç]  
φι phi [ɸj] [fç]  
χι khi [xj] [ç]  
ψι psi [psj] [psç]  

Additional notes

  • A rough breathing mark (dasy pneuma) is designated by an h at the front of the word (both in IPA and Romanization). A smooth breathing mark (psilon pneuma) requires no notation. In Koine IPA, the rough breathing mark is marked as [(h)] because it's already a mostly dead phoneme. In Byzantine IPA onward, it is totally gone. When the rough breathing mark is on vowels or diphthongs, they should be preceded with h in romanization. Over ρ, the consonant is romanized rh. The mark is always on (or implied to be on) word-initial Ρ ρ Υ υ Υι υι, which are always romanized Rh rh Hu hu Hui hui. ρρ/ῤῥ is always romanized rrh.
  • Iota subscripts are Romanized for Classical Greek, but neither pronounced nor Romanized for Koine. In Classical pronunciation an iota subscript is designated by a /j/ following the vowel.
  • A diaeresis should be noted in a Romanization with the umlaut set found in the Latin/Roman script set (at the bottom of the editing window).
  • In Classical IPA, acute accent is noted by   ́   on vowel, circumflex with    ̂  . In Koine, both are represented with   ˈ   at the beginning of corresponding syllable. Accents are not noted in Romanization.
  • Macrons should be designated in IPA by the long vowel symbol ː. The length distinctions of ᾰ/ᾱ, ῐ/ῑ and ῠ/ῡ are noted in Romanizations where they are known.
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Ancient_Greek_Romanization_and_Pronunciation

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Filmo
Kastelo Verda
vesperto
The Illustrated Man estas unu el miaj favorataj filmoj.
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Ekzotismo
Kastelo Verda
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Estas fascine, ke por Ĉinoj Japanujo estas ekzota, kiel por Francoj Germanujo estas ekzota, kiel por Kanadanoj Usono estas ekzota, kaj tiel plu...
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Messie
Kastelo Verda
vesperto

 
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messie

«Si le judaïsme orthodoxe et le judaïsme "traditionaliste" croient en un Messie "physique" à venir pour apporter la paix dans le monde, le judaïsme réformé enseigne qu'il y aura une ère de paix, etc., et donc des temps messianiques, mais pas de messie : la paix viendra comme résultat du tikkoun olam

("réparation du monde") réalisé par un effort collectif vers la justice sociale et non les actions d'un seul homme.»


 

«Dans l'islam, Jésus (Issa) n'est considéré ni comme le fils de Dieu, ni comme Dieu, mais comme un prophète important. Le Coran l'appelle à plusieurs reprises 'Al-Masih' الْمَسِيحُ, et son retour sur terre est attendu à la fin des temps. Certains courants chiites attendent avec lui un autre personnage eschatologique, le Mahdi, qui n'est pas cité dans le Coran. A la différence du Mahdi sunnite qui doit encore naître, le Mahdi chiite est déjà né et se cache dans une grotte depuis son enfance.»




http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maitreya

 «Maitreya (« amical », « bienveillant » en sanscrit), appelé Metteya en Pali, Jetsun Jampa Gonpo en tibétain, Mílè púsà ou Mílèfó en chinois, Miroku en japonais, Di-lặc en vietnamien) est un Mahābodhisattva qui serait le prochain Bouddha à venir lorsque le Dharma, l'enseignement du Bouddha Shakyamuni, aura disparu.

La croyance en l'avènement de Maitreya est partagée par les courants theravāda et mahāyāna du bouddhisme 

 

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