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Universitato de Vesperto

ĉe Lulu-insulo sur Fraser-rivero. Esperanto ekde 1887.


Proto-Australoid
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

According to a hypothesis asserted during the late 1950s, the Proto-Australoids were an ancient hunter-gatherer people descended from the first major wave of modern humans to leave sub-Saharan Africa 100,000 years ago. Characterised by gracile body types, they are thought to have had deep dark brown skin color and wavy or curly black hair. They are also thought to have had long heads and broad, flat noses. [1] However, recent scientific evidence suggests that in fact, the first surviving wave of modern humans to leave sub-Saharan Africa did so ~65,000 years ago rather than 100,000 years ago. Furthermore, the most parsimonious hypothesis with regards to the physical appearance of the members of this group is that, similar to contemporary Africans, they expressed deep dark brown skin and black, tightly coiled, natural afro-hair (as opposed to the black, wavy or curly hair associated with Aboriginal Australians) (Windshuttle & Gillin, 2002). In light of the overwhelming evidence suggesting that the ancestral mammalian (including primate) hair texture was very likely within the range of straight/wavy to curly, the idea that the first modern humans expressed tightly coiled hair runs counter to the intuition that straight/wavy or curly hair was also the ancestral trait for modern humans. Nevertheless, given the overwhelming evidence that humanity arose recently (~200,000 years ago) in sub-Saharan Africa, the extreme rarity of straight/wavy or even curly hair in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa in favor of tightly coiled Afro-hair suggests that, long before the development of our species (Homo sapiens sapiens), the ancestors of the first modern human migrants out of Africa had already adapted to conditions selecting for the unique sub-Saharan African afro-hair texture. In this sense, as suggested by Windshuttle and Gillin (2002), an intimation that the early modern humans resembled contemporary Aboriginal Australians or even continental Indians is less parsimonious than the assertion that they more likely resembled contemporary sub-Saharan Africans (and/or "Negritos") in appearance.

Contents

 

Migration

The so called "proto-Australoids" (or, more likely, as suggested above, the "Afro-Negritos"), are thought to have begun their exodus out of Africa roughly 65,000 years ago. They are thought to have used a simple form of watercraft to cross the narrow span of water between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.

From there it is hypothesized that they followed a coastal route through south Asia into Southeast Asia. While some individuals made an oceanic voyage into Australia (~50-60 thousand years ago), giving rise to the Afro-Negrito ancestral component of the Australian Aborigines (Windshuttle & Gillin, 2002), others continued their coastal migration north into East Asia.

The descendants of those who lingered near the Gulf of Aden eventually migrated northwards to populate Central Europe and adapted phenotypically to the new climate and latitude. Meanwhile, those descendants of the coastal migrants who continued their movement north into East Asia also adapted to a northern climate and latitude.

From there some of them pushed on into Siberia and eventually crossed the Bering Land Bridge (or followed a coastal route) into the Americas, contributing to a hypothetical population of Pre-Siberian American Aborigines.

The 1950's proponents of a "proto-Australoid" population wave theorize that remnants of this early founding population may be found today in the southern portion of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Oceania. Some have proposed connections to the Ainu of Japan.

Genetically, they have been tentatively associated by some authors with mtDNA haplogroup M and Y-chromosome Haplogroup C[2], the earliest Homo sapiens lineages thought to have migrated outside of Africa. [3] However, while it is indeed true that the descendants of the first major wave of modern humans to leave sub-Saharan Africa migrated to all of these places and passed on these genetic patterns, it would be a misnomer to call such people "proto-Austaloids" given that this evokes a phenotypic image that is not aligned with the most parsimonious explanation of the current evidence (Windshuttle & Gillin, 2002).

 

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=zYo3AAAAIAAJ The Masks of God: Oriental Mythology, Joseph Campbell, Penguin Books, 1959
  2. ^ https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html Atlas of the Human Journey], The Genographic Project
  3. ^ Deep Ancestry, Spencer Wells, National Geographic Society, 2006

 

References


Australoid race
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Australoid race is a broad racial classification. The concept originated with a typological method of racial classification.[1][2] They were described as having dark skin with wavy hair, in the case of Aboriginal Australians, or hair ranging from straight to kinky in the case of Melanesian and Negrito groups.

According to this model of classification, Australoid peoples ranged throughout Australia, New Guinea, and Melanesia, as well as different parts of Oceania , Philippines,Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, and the Southern Middle East[3]. In the mid-twentieth century an argument emerged that Australoids were linked to proto-Caucasoids.

In the out of Africa theory, the ancestors of the Australoids are thought to have been the first to migrate from Africa about 60,000 BCE, migrating along the now submerged continental shelf of the northern shore of the Indian Ocean and reaching Australia about 50,000 BCE.

Contents

 

History

In the late nineteenth century, anthropometric studies led to a proposition of racial groups, one of which was termed "Australioid" by Thomas Huxley in an essay 'On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind' (1870), in which he divided humanity into four principal groups (Xanthochroic, Mongoloid, Negroid, and Australioid).[5]

Huxley also concluded that the Melanochroi (Peoples of the Mediterranean race) are of a mixture of the Xanthochroi and Australioids.[6] Later writers dropped the first "I" in Australioid, establishing Australoid as the standard spelling.

According to Peter Bellwood, "many of the present Southern Mongoloid populations of Indonesia and Malaysia also have a high degree of Australo-Melanesian genetic heritage."[7]

One proponent, R. Ruggles Gates, argued in 1960 that "If the Ainu are partly of Australoid origin it is also clear that they are even more nearly derived from archaic Caucasian ancestry".[8] M.K. Bhasin (2006) suggests that the "Australoids" "differentiat[ed]... perhaps from a common type before the separation of the Mongoloids and Caucasoids"[9]

 

Use to describe populations in India

Huxley's original model included populations in India. Some scholars still use the term Australoid denote the small populations, mainly in India and Sri Lanka, usually associated with Veddas. The American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1996, p. 382) by American Association of Physical Anthropologists. L. L. (Luigi Luca) Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza in their text, The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994, P. 241) both use the term.

Balgir (2004)[10] designates tribes as Australoid or Proto-Australoid according to language family:

It may be mentioned here that the major scheduled tribes of Orissa belong to three linguistic groups, namely, Indo-Aryan or Indo-Europeans, i.e. Non-Australoid, Austro-Asiatic (Mundari) speakers, i.e. Proto-Australoid, and Dravidian (Gondi or Kuvi) speakers, i.e. Australoid. Proto-Australoid racial group includes Bhumiz, Gadaba, Juang, Kharia, Koda, Kolha, Mahali, Mirdha, Munda, Santal and Saora tribes. Tribes like Bathudi, Bhatra, Binjhal, Bhuyan, Lodha and Saunti belong to non-Australoid racial stock while Australoid racial stock is represented by Gond, Kondh, Kissan, Oraon, Paraja and Pentia Halva tribes.

Kashyap (2006) [11] designates 23 out of 54 Indian populations studied as Australoid, of which one speaks an Indo-European language (Dhangar of Maharashtra), 4 speak Austro-Asiatic languages (Kurmi of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar Kurmi of Bihar, and Juang and Saora of Orissa), and 18 speak Dravidian languages. 7 populations were designated as Mongoloid, and the remaining 24 as Caucasoid. No Proto-Australoid category was used.

 

Physical features

Forensic anthropologist Caroline Wilkenson says that Australoids have the largest brow ridges "with moderate to large supraorbital arches".[12] Caucasoids have the second largest brow ridges with "moderate supraorbital ridges".[12] Negroids have the third largest brow ridges with an "undulating supraorbital ridge".[12] Mongoloids are "absent browridges", so they have the smallest brow ridges.[12]

 

The first Americans?

Skulls of peoples with Australoid morphologies have been found in the Americas, leading to speculation that peoples with phenotypical similarities to modern Australoids may have been the earliest occupants of the continent.[13][14][15] These have been termed by some Pre-Siberian American Aborigines.

Christy Turner notes that "cranial analyses of some South American crania have suggested that there might have been some early migration of "Australoids."[16] These early Americans left signs of settlement in Brazil which may date back as many as 50,000 years ago. However, Turner argues that cranial morphology suggests "Sinodonty" in all the populations he has studied.

One of earliest skulls recovered by archaeologists is a specimen scientists have named Lucia.[3] According to archaeologist Walter Neves of the University of São Paulo, detailed measurements of the skull revealed that Lucia "was anything but Mongoloid." Further, when a forensic artist reconstructed Lucia's face, "the result was surprising: 'It had all the features of a Negroid face"....[17]

Some scientists believe these Australoid first Americans later were displaced relatively recently by peoples with more Mongoloid, or East Asian, characteristics approximately 7,000 to 9,000 years ago. Such scientists argue that a small number of Australoid peoples living in Tierra del Fuego are thought to be the only remaining survivors of these earliest known Americans.

The pre-European Fuegeans, who lived stone age-style lives until this century, show hybrid skull features which could have resulted from intermarrying between mongoloid and negroid peoples. Their rituals and traditions also bear some resemblance to the ancient rock art in Brazil."....[17]

 

See also

 

References

  1. ^ O'Neil, Dennis. "Biological Anthropology Terms." 2006. May 13, 2007. Palomar College.[1]
  2. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/first/gill.html Does Race Exist? A proponent's perspective by George W. Gill.
  3. ^ http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter47/text47.htm
  4. ^ Huxley, T. H. "On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind" (1870) Journal of the Ethnological Society of London
  5. ^ Huxley, Thomas On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind. 1870. August 14, 2006
  6. ^ Huxley, Thomas. On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind. 1870. August 14, 2006. <http://aleph0.clarku.edu/huxley/SM3/GeoDis.html>
  7. ^ Bellwood, Peter (1985). Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Australian National University. pp. 92. ISBN 9781921313110. http://books.google.com/books?id=4obAfGBGKY0C&pg=RA1-PA346&lpg=RA1-PA346&dq=australomelanesoid&source=web&ots=qParWd6vh7&sig=qhrR5-GeGWbN0vw87QVbH4fnLpY#PPA92,M1. 
  8. ^ Ruggles Gates, R. "The Australian Aboriginals in a New Setting", Man, April 1960, pp. 53-6, [2]
  9. ^ Bhasin, M.K. (2006). "Genetics of Caste and Tribes of India: Indian Population Milieu". Int J Hum Genet (Kamla Raj) 6 (3): 233–274. http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJHG/IJHG-06-0-000-000-2006-Web/IJHG-06-3-177-280-2006-Abst-PDF/IJHG-06-3-233-274-2006-000-Bhasin-M-K/IJHG-06-3-233-274-2006-000-Bhasin-M-K-Text.PDF. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  10. ^ Balgir, RS and Dash, BP and Murmu, B. (2004). "Blood groups, hemoglobinopathy and G-6-PD deficiency investigations among fifteen major scheduled tribes of Orissa, India". Anthropologist 6: pp. 69--75. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=1442977052456102143. 
  11. ^ Kashyap, VK and Guha, S. and Sitalaximi, T. and Bindu, G.H. and Hasnain, S.E. and Trivedi, R. (2006). "Genetic structure of Indian populations based on fifteen autosomal microsatellite loci". BMC Genetics 7: pp. 28. http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2156-7-28.pdf. 
  12. ^ a b c d Wilkenson, Caroline. Forensic Facial Reconstruction. Cambridge University Press. 2004. ISBN 0521820030
  13. ^ Ancient voyage of discovery, Independent, The (London), Apr 8, 1996 by David Keys
  14. ^ Scientific American, Skulls Suggest Differing Stocks for First Americans, December 13, 2005
  15. ^ National Geographic, Americas Settled by Two Groups of Early Humans, Study Says, Dec 12, 2005
  16. ^ Turner, Christy (2002). "Teeth, Needles, Dogs and Siberia: Bioarchaeological Evidence for the Colonization of the New World". The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World'. University of California Press. p. 138. http://books.google.com/books?id=RI32r548fUwC. 
  17. ^ a b ."First Americans were Australian." BBC News, Sci/Tech. August 26, 1999. Accessed 01-07/2007.

Ainu of Japan
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Bhavan identifies Northeast India Mongoloids to be a subrace called the "Paleo-Mongoloid", being the "dominant element in the tribes living in Assam and the Indo-Burmese frontiers... Sikkim, Mizoram, Bhutan, Nepal... [and] Tibetan mongoloids"[14]

In 1900, Joseph Deniker said, the "Mongol race admits two varieties or subraces: Tunguse or Northern Mongolian... and Southern Mongolian"[4] The people of East Asia are called "Northern Mongoloids".[15] Archaeologist Peter Bellwood claims that the "vast majority" of people in Southeast Asia, the region he calls the "clinal Mongoloid-Australoid zone", are "Southern Mongoloids" but have a "high degree" of Australoid admixture. [16] Ainus are considered Southern Mongoloids even though they live in East Asia.[15] Sinodonty and Sundadonty are dentition patterns that correspond to the Northern Mongoloid vs. Southern Mongoloid distinction.

[...]

The physical features of the "Proto-Mongoloid" were characterized as, "a straight-haired type, medium in complexion, jaw protrusion, nose-breadth, and inclining probably to round-headedness".[35] Kanzō Umehara considers the Ainu and Ryukyuans to have "preserved their proto-Mongoloid traits". [36]

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Mongoloid