Kastelo Verda


Ang Shinto o Shintō (神道) ay ang katutubong relihiyon ng Hapon at dating naging relihiyon ng estado. Ito ay kinapalolooban ng pagsamba sa Kami (神), o mga diyos. Ang ibang Kami ay lokal at maaaring ang mga espiritu o ang henyo ng isang partikular na lugar, ngunit ang iba ay nagpapakita ng mas malaking bagay na natural at proseso: halimbawa, Amaterasu-ōmikami ang diyosa ng araw, o ang Bundok Fuji. Ang Shinto ay isang sistemang may paniniwalang Animistiko. Ang salitang Shinto ay nagmula sa salitang Tsinong Shén Dào na ang kahulugan ay daan ng mga diyos: "神" (Shin) na ang kahulugan ay mga diyos at espiritu (kung babasahin ito nang mag-isa, ito ay binibigkas bilang "kami") at "道" (tō), na ang kahulugan ay isang paraang pilosopikal (tulad ng panulat ng mga Intsik na sa salitang Dào). Sa madaling salita, ang Shinto ay kadalasang sinasalalin bilang "Ang Paraan ng mga Diyos."

Pagkatapos ng Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig, ang katayuan ng Shinto bilang relihiyon ng estado ng Hapon ay nawala; ang mga kasanayan at pangaral, na minsang naging prominente noong kasagsagan ng digmaan, ay hindi na itinuturo at sinasanay sa ngayon, at ang iba naman ay makikita na lamang sa mga gawaing tulad ng o-mikuji (おみくじ, isang uri ng panghuhula) at sa Bagong Taon ng mga Hapones[kailangan ng sanggunian] o kaya sa kasal.

Ang ichirei shikon (一霊四魂) ang isang tema ng Shinto. Sa isang tao ay "isang espiritu at apat na kaluluwa." Bawat isa ng mga limang ito ay may sariling pungksiyon sa tao.

Sa kamatayan ng tao, may ilang posibleng destinasyon: sa malayong kabila ng karagatan na may buhay-bata, sa di kitang mundong astral, sa mundo-ilalim, o kaya sa kabundukan para magguwardiya ng buhay pang pamilya.

Sa Shinto, ang paniwala ay may posibilidad na ang tao ay maging kami. Marami ang kami at kung tawagin minsan ay kamigami. Kung minsan, ang tawag ng mga Hapones sa Diyos ay Kami-sama.

Kastelo Verda


lo cirla goi ko'a cu sligu cidja .i ko'a jdari jonai ranti .i ko'a cu te pruce lo ladru lo pu'u jmina lo cirlyzmase gi'e vimcu lo djacu vo'e .ibabo so'i cirla cu te ba'onru'e fu lo jurme .a lo mledi .i lacri lo dujyca'a lo nu ko'a xamgu lo ka citka ce'u

ni'o ko'a traji lo ka mixre lo lanbi joi lo grasu .i ji'a ko'a mixre lo bogjinme joi lo sackycmu joi lo abumoi mivytcuxu'i

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Meiji Restoration

The Meiji Restoration (明治維新 Meiji Ishin?), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.

The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period. The period spanned from 1868 to 1912 and was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth century.

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Edo Period

The Edo period (江戸時代 Edo jidai?) or Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa jidai?) is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyo. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, popular enjoyment of arts and culture, recycling of materials, and sustainable forest management. It was a sustainable and self-sufficient society which was based on the principles of complete utilization of finite resources.[1] The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo.

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Gerald Feinberg

Gerald Feinberg (27 May 1933, New York City – 21 April 1992, New York City) was a Columbia University physicist, futurist and populist author. He spent a year as a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, and two years at the Brookhaven Laboratories.[1]


He coined the term tachyon for hypothetical faster-than-light particles and analysed their quantum field properties,[2] predicted the existence of the muon neutrino[3] and advocated cryonics as a public service.[4] He was a member of the Foresight Institute's advisory panel.[5]


Feinberg wrote a foreword to Edgar Mitchell's book Psychic Explorations (1974) in which he endorsed psychic phenomena. His concept of a tachyon, a theoretical particle that travels faster than the speed of light has been advocated by some parapsychologists who claim that it could explain precognition or psychokinesis. However, there is no scientific evidence tachyon particles exist and such paranormal claims have been described as pseudoscientific.[6][7]



Cosmological Constants (with co-editor Jeremy Bernstein, 1986). ISBN 978-0-231-06376-0
Solid Clues: Quantum Physics, Molecular Biology, and the Future of Science, Simon & Schuster, 1985. ISBN 0-434-26200-5
Life Beyond Earth: The Intelligent Earthling's Guide to Extraterrestrial Life (with Robert Shapiro), Morrow, 1980. ISBN 0-688-08642-X
What is the world made of? : Atoms, leptons, quarks, and other tantalizing particles, Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1977. ISBN 0-385-07694-0 & ISBN 0-385-07693-2
Consequences of Growth: The Prospects for a Limitless Future, Seabury Press, New York, 1977. ISBN 0-8164-9326-X Review
The Prometheus Project, Mankind's Search for Long-Range Goals, Anchor Books, 1969. ISBN 0-385-03613-2


G. Feinberg, Shaughan Lavine, D.Z. Albert (1992). "Knowledge of the Past and Future". Journal of Philosophy 89: 607–642. doi:10.2307/2940898.
G. Feinberg; D.Z. Albert; S. Lavine (1989). "Two types of prediction in Newtonian and quantum mechanics". Physics Letters A 138: 454–458. Bibcode:1989PhLA..138..454F. doi:10.1016/0375-9601(89)90743-3.
G. Feinberg (1967). "Possibility of Faster-Than-Light Particles". Physical Review 159: 1089–1105. Bibcode:1967PhRv..159.1089F. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.159.1089.
G. Feinberg (1966). "Physics and Life Prolongation". Physics Today 19 (11): 45. Bibcode:1966PhT....19k..45F. doi:10.1063/1.3047814.
G. Feinberg (1966). "Physics and the Thales Problem". Journal of Philosophy 63 (1): 5–16. doi:10.2307/2024523.


1.^ "Gerald Feinberg, 58, Physicist; Taught at Columbia University". Retrieved 2015-03-28.
2.^ G. Feinberg (1967). "Possibility of Faster-Than-Light Particles". Physical Review 159: 1089–1105. Bibcode:1967PhRv..159.1089F. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.159.1089.
3.^ M. Schwartz (1992). Nobel Lectures. World Scientific. p. 469.
4.^ G. Feinberg (1966). "Physics and Life Prolongation". Physics Today 19 (11): 45. Bibcode:1966PhT....19k..45F. doi:10.1063/1.3047814.
5.^ D. Shafer (1990). "Feinberg Anxious for Policy Discussions". Foresight Update 9: 1.
6.^ Rothman, Milton (September 1994). "Tachyons and Other Nonentities". Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 4.3. Retrieved 2014-03-16.
7.^ Carroll, Robert Todd. (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions. Wiley. pp. 370-371. ISBN 0-471-27242-6

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Yōkai (妖怪?, ghost, phantom, strange apparition) are a class of supernatural monsters, spirits and demons in Japanese folklore. The word yōkai is made up of the kanji for "bewitching; attractive; calamity;" and "spectre; apparition; mystery; suspicious".[1] They can also be called ayakashi (妖?), mononoke (物の怪?), or mamono (魔物?). Yōkai range eclectically from the malevolent to the mischievous, or occasionally bring good fortune to those who encounter them. Often they possess animal features (such as the Kappa, which is similar to a turtle, or the Tengu which has wings), other times they can appear mostly human, some look like inanimate objects and others have no discernible shape. Yōkai usually have a spiritual supernatural power, with shapeshifting being one of the most common. Yōkai that have the ability to shapeshift are called obake.

Japanese folklorists and historians use yōkai as "supernatural or unaccountable phenomena to their informants". In the Edo period, many artists, such as Toriyama Sekien, created yōkai inspired by folklore or their own ideas, and in the present, several yōkai created by them (e.g. Kameosa and Amikiri, see below) are wrongly considered as being of legendary origin.[2]


There are a wide variety of yōkai in Japanese folklore. In general, yōkai is a broad term, and can be used to encompass virtually all monsters and supernatural beings, even including creatures from European folklore on occasion.


Ukiyo-e print of yōkai, by Kawanabe Kyōsai
Many indigenous Japanese animals are thought to have magical qualities. Most of these are henge (変化?), which are shapeshifters (o-bake, bake-mono[3]) that often appear in human form, mostly women. Some of the better known animal yōkai include the following:

Tanuki (raccoon dogs)
Kitsune (foxes)
Hebi (snakes)
Mujina (badgers)
Bakeneko (cats)
Tsuchigumo and jorōgumo (spiders)
Inugami (dogs)


One of the most well-known aspects of Japanese folklore is the oni, which has traits of demons and ogres, usually depicted with red, blue, brown or black skin, two horns on its head, a wide mouth filled with fangs, and wearing nothing but a tigerskin loincloth. It often carries an iron kanabo or a giant sword. Oni are depicted as evil.


A goblin from Japanese mythology that has several supernatural powers and skills in martial arts, the tengu were originally extremely dangerous demons and enemies of Buddhism. Over centuries, their behavior changed from spirits of the damned to active defenders of Dharma.


Tsukumogami are an entire class of yōkai and obake, comprising ordinary household items that have come to life on the one-hundredth anniversary of their birthday. This virtually unlimited classification includes:

Bakezōri (straw sandals)
Biwa-bokuboku (a lute)
Burabura (a paper lantern)
Karakasa (old umbrellas)
Kameosa (old sake jars)
Morinji-no-kama (tea kettles)
Mokumokuren (paper screens with eyes)

Human transformations

Ukiyo-e print of yōkai, by Kawanabe Kyōsai

"Various Yokai Flying out of Wicker Clothes Hamper" from the "Omoi Tsuzura" (おもゐつづら), Yoshitoshi
There are a large number of yōkai who were originally ordinary human beings, transformed into something horrific and grotesque usually during an extremely emotional state. Women suffering from intense jealousy, for example, were thought to transform into the female oni represented by hannya masks.[4] Other examples of human transformations or humanoid yōkai are:

Rokuro-kubi (humans able to elongate their necks during the night)
Ohaguro-bettari (a figure, usually female, that turns to reveal a face with only a blackened mouth)
Futakuchi-onna (a woman with a voracious extra mouth on the back of her head)
Dorotabō (the risen corpse of a farmer, who haunts his abused land)
Other Edit
Some yōkai are extremely specific in their habits, for instance:

Azukiarai (a yōkai who is always found washing azuki beans)
Akaname (only found in dirty bathrooms and spends its time licking the filth left by the untidy owners)
Ashiarai Yashiki (A gargantuan foot that appears in rooms and demands the terrified home owner wash it)
Tofu Kozo (a small monk who carries a plate with a block of tofu)

Kastelo Verda


ni'o le purdi cu larcu le rinka spati banro tezu'e le finti be le melbi vanbi .i le zdani purdi cu cafne fasnu tu'i le stuzi no'u le purdi .i le purdi cu fadni stuzi le dertu sefta tu'i le jibni be le zdani ku gi'e rirci stuzi le zdani drudi .a le nenri dinju ke barda je kalri canlu ke'e .a le balni .a le canko tanxe .a le bartu je lamji zdani sefta